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FORM 10-K
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year endedDecember 31, 2021
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ______ to ______
Commission file number1-10816
https://cdn.kscope.io/6a46c0396d4f98423e7da26a1aaa4c98-mtg-20211231_g1.jpg
MGIC Investment Corporation
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Wisconsin39-1486475
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
250 E. Kilbourn Avenue
Milwaukee,Wisconsin53202
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(414)347-6480
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, par value $1 per shareMTGNew York Stock Exchange

Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ☒

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer ☐Non-accelerated filer ☐Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.     

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). YES NO ☒

State the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter. : Approximately $4.6 billion*

MGIC Investment Corporation 2021 Form 10-K | 1


* Solely for purposes of computing such value and without thereby admitting that such persons are affiliates of the Registrant, shares held by directors and executive officers of the Registrant are deemed to be held by affiliates of the Registrant. Shares held are those shares beneficially owned for purposes of Rule 13d-3 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 but excluding shares subject to stock options.

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date: As of February 18, 2022, there were 315,605,040 shares of common stock of the registrant, par value $1.00 per share, outstanding.

The following documents have been incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K, as indicated:
DocumentPart and Item Number of Form 10-K Into Which Incorporated*
Proxy Statement for the 2022 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, provided such Proxy Statement is filed within 120 days after December 31, 2021. If not so filed, the information provided in Items 10 through 14 of Part III will be included in an amended Form 10-K filed within such 120 day period.Items 10 through 14 of Part III

* In each case, to the extent provided in the Items listed.



MGIC Investment Corporation 2021 Form 10-K | 2

MGIC Investment Corporation and Subsidiaries



Table of Contents
Page No.
PART I 
Item 1. 
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II
Item 5.
Item 6.Reserved.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
PART III
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
PART IV
Item 15.
Item 16.



MGIC Investment Corporation 2021 Form 10-K | 3


Glossary of terms and acronyms
/ A
ARMs
Adjustable rate mortgages

ABS
Asset-backed securities

ASC
Accounting Standards Codification

Available Assets
Assets, as designated under the PMIERs, that are readily available to pay claims, and include the most liquid investments

/ B
Book or book year
A group of loans insured in a particular calendar year

BPMI
Borrower-paid mortgage insurance

/ C
CECL
Current expected credit losses covered under ASC 326

CFPB
Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

CLO
Collateralized loan obligations

CMBS
Commercial mortgage-backed securities

COVID-19 Pandemic
An outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease, later named COVID-19, that has spread globally, causing significant adverse effects on populations and economies. The outbreak of COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization and a national emergency in the United States in March 2020

CRT
Credit risk transfer. The transfer of a portion of mortgage credit risk to the private sector through different forms of transactions and structures

/ D
DAC
Deferred insurance policy acquisition costs

Debt-to-income ("DTI") ratio
The ratio, expressed as a percentage, of a borrower's total debt payments to gross income

Delinquent Loan
A loan that is past due on a mortgage payment. A delinquent loan is typically reported to us by servicers when the loan has missed two or more payments. A loan will continue to be reported as delinquent until it becomes current or a claim payment has been made. A delinquent loan is also referred to as a default

Delinquency Rate
The percentage of insured loans that are delinquent

Direct
Before giving effect to reinsurance

/E
EPS
Earnings per share

/ F
Fannie Mae
Federal National Mortgage Association

FCRA
Fair Credit Reporting Act

FHA
Federal Housing Administration

FHFA
Federal Housing Finance Agency

FHLB
Federal Home Loan Bank of Chicago, of which MGIC is a member

FICO score
A measure of consumer credit risk provided by credit bureaus, typically produced from statistical models by Fair Isaac Corporation utilizing data collected by the credit bureaus

Freddie Mac
Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation

/ G
GAAP
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States

GSEs
Collectively, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac


MGIC Investment Corporation 2021 Form 10-K | 4

MGIC Investment Corporation and Subsidiaries



/ H
HAMP
Home Affordable Modification Program

HARP
Home Affordable Refinance Program

Home Re Entities
Unaffiliated special purpose insurers domiciled in Bermuda that participate in our aggregate excess of loss reinsurance agreements.

Home Re Transactions
Excess-of-loss reinsurance transactions with the Home Re Entities

HOPA
Homeowners Protection Act

HUD
Housing and Urban Development

/ I
IBNR Reserves
Loss reserves established on loans we estimate are delinquent, but for which the delinquency has not been reported to us

IIF
Insurance in force, which for loans insured by us, is equal to the unpaid principal balance, as reported to us

ILN
Insurance-linked notes

/ L
LAE
Loss adjustment expenses, which includes the costs of settling claims, including legal and other expenses and general expenses of administering the claims settlement process.

Loan-to-value ("LTV") ratio
The ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the dollar amount of the first mortgage loan to the value of the property at the time the loan became insured and does not reflect subsequent housing price appreciation or depreciation. Subordinate mortgages may also be present

Long-term debt:
5.75% Notes
5.75% Senior Notes due on August 15, 2023, with interest payable semi-annually on February 15 and August 15 of each year

5.25% Notes
5.25% Senior Notes due on August 15, 2028, with interest payable semi-annually on February 15 and August 15 of each year

9% Debentures
9% Convertible Junior Subordinated Debentures due on April 1, 2063, with interest payable semi-annually on April 1 and October 1 of each year

FHLB Advance or the Advance
1.91% Fixed rate advance from the FHLB due on February 10, 2023, with interest payable monthly

Loss ratio
The ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the sum of incurred losses and loss adjustment expenses to NPE

Low down payment loans or mortgages
Loans with less than 20% down payments

LPMI
Lender-paid mortgage insurance

/ M
MBS
Mortgage-backed securities

MD&A
Management's discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations

MGIC
Mortgage Guaranty Insurance Corporation, a subsidiary of MGIC Investment Corporation

MAC
MGIC Assurance Corporation, a subsidiary of MGIC

Minimum Required Assets
The minimum amount of Available Assets that must be held under the PMIERs, which is based on an insurer's book of RIF and is calculated from tables of factors with several risk dimensions, reduced for credit given for risk ceded under reinsurance transactions, and subject to a floor of $400 million

MPP
Minimum Policyholder Position, as required under certain state requirements. The “policyholder position” of a mortgage insurer is its net worth or surplus, contingency reserve and a portion of the reserves for unearned premiums

/ N
N/A
Not applicable for the period presented

NAIC
The National Association of Insurance Commissioners

NIW
New Insurance Written, is the aggregate original principal amount of the mortgages that are insured during a period


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N/M
Data, or calculation, deemed not meaningful for the period presented

NPE
The amount of premiums earned, net of premiums assumed and ceded under reinsurance agreements

NPL
Non-performing loan, which is a delinquent loan, at any stage in its delinquency

NPW
The amount of premiums written, net of premiums assumed and ceded under reinsurance agreements

/ O
OCI
Office of the Commissioner of Insurance of the State of Wisconsin

OTTI
Other than temporary impairment

/ P
Peak-COVID-19 delinquencies
A delinquent loan reported to us in the second and third quarter of 2020

Persistency
The percentage of our insurance remaining in force from one year prior

PMI
Private Mortgage Insurance (as an industry or product type)

PMIERs
Private Mortgage Insurer Eligibility Requirements issued by each of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to set forth requirements that an approved insurer must meet and maintain to provide mortgage guaranty insurance on loans delivered to or acquired by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, as applicable

Pre-COVID-19 delinquencies
A delinquent loan reported to us prior to the second quarter of 2020

Premium Rate
The contractual rate charged for coverage under our insurance policies

Premium Yield
The ratio of premium earned divided by the average IIF outstanding for the period measured

Primary Insurance
Insurance that provides mortgage default protection on individual loans. Primary insurance may be written on a "flow" basis, in which loans are insured in individual, loan-by-loan transactions, or on a "bulk" basis, in which each loan in a portfolio of loans is individually insured in a single bulk transaction

Profit Commission
Payments we receive from reinsurers under each of our quota share reinsurance transactions if the annual loss ratio is below levels specified in the quota share reinsurance transaction

/ Q
QSR Transaction
Quota share reinsurance transaction with a group of unaffiliated reinsurers

2015 QSR
Our QSR transaction that provides coverage on eligible NIW written prior to 2017

2017 QSR
Our QSR transaction that provided coverage on eligible NIW in 2017

2018 QSR
Our QSR transaction that provided coverage on eligible NIW in 2018

2019 QSR
Our QSR transaction that provides coverage on eligible NIW in 2019

2020 QSR
Our QSR transactions that provides coverage on eligible NIW in 2020

2021 QSR
Our QSR transactions that provides coverage on eligible NIW in 2021

2022 QSR
Our QSR transactions that provides coverage on eligible NIW in 2022

Credit Union QSR
Our QSR transaction that provides coverage on eligible NIW from credit union institutions originated from April 1, 2020 through December 31, 2025



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/ R
RESPA
Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act

RIF
Risk in force, which for an individual loan insured by us, is equal to the unpaid loan principal balance, as reported to us, multiplied by the insurance coverage percentage. RIF is sometimes referred to as exposure

Risk-to-capital
Under certain state regulations, the ratio of RIF, net of reinsurance and exposure on policies currently in default and for which loss reserves have been established, to the level of statutory capital

RMBS
Residential mortgage-backed securities

/ S
State Capital Requirements
Under certain state regulations, the minimum amount of statutory capital relative to risk in force (or similar measure)

/ T
Tax Act
The U.S. tax reform enacted on December 22, 2017 and
commonly referred to as the "Tax Cuts and Jobs Act"

TILA
Truth in Lending Act

/ U
Underwriting expense ratio
The ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the underwriting and operating expenses, net and amortization of DAC of our combined insurance operations (which excludes underwriting and operating expenses of our non-insurance subsidiaries) to NPW

Underwriting profit
NPE minus incurred losses and underwriting and operating expenses

USDA
U.S. Department of Agriculture

/ V
VA
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs

VIE
Variable interest entity


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Item 1. Business
See the "Glossary of terms and acronyms" for definitions and descriptions of terms used throughout this annual report.

A.    General
We are a holding company and through wholly-owned subsidiaries we provide private mortgage insurance, other mortgage credit risk management solutions, and ancillary services. In 2021, our total revenues were $1.2 billion and our primary NIW was $120.2 billion. As of December 31, 2021, our direct primary IIF was $274.4 billion and our direct primary RIF was $69.3 billion. For further information about our results of operations, see our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 and our MD&A in Item 7. As of December 31, 2021, our principal mortgage insurance subsidiary, MGIC, was licensed in all 50 states of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and Guam. During 2021, we wrote new insurance in each of those jurisdictions.
2022 BUSINESS STRATEGIES
Our business strategies continue to be to 1) maximize the value we create through our mortgage credit enhancement activities; 2) differentiate ourselves through our customer experience; 3) establish a competitive advantage through our digital and analytical capabilities; 4) excel at acquiring, managing and distributing mortgage credit risk and the related capital; 5) maintain financial strength through economic cycles; and 6) foster an environment that embraces diversity and best positions our people to succeed.
2021 ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Following are several of our 2021 accomplishments that furthered our business strategies.
Earned $635 million of net income ($1.85 per diluted share) for the year, compared to $446 million ($1.29 per diluted share) in 2020.
Increased primary NIW from $112.1 billion in 2020 to $120.2 billion in 2021 and increased primary IIF by more than 11.3% year-over-year. The NIW is consistent with the Company's risk and return goals.
Expanded our reinsurance program by reaching favorable terms to secure quota share reinsurance coverage on NIW through 2023, and by executing two insurance linked note transactions, providing a total of $797 million in excess-of-loss reinsurance coverage on a portion of our 2020 and 2021 NIW. These transactions allow us to better manage our risk profile and they provide an alternative source of capital.
Paid $400 million of cash dividends from MGIC to our holding company, after having temporarily suspended such dividends through mid-2021 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Maintained financial strength and capital flexibility while returning approximately $385 million in capital to shareholders:
Repurchased 5.6% of our shares outstanding at the beginning of the year.
Increased cash dividends by 33% in the second half of 2021.
Repurchased $99 million of our 2063 Junior Convertible Debentures, which eliminated approximately 7.5 million potentially dilutive shares.
Continued to transform our business processes along a number of dimensions, including pricing, data and analytics, inside sales and our underwriting platform.
Established an Affordable Housing Strategy, which in 2021 included:
Made significant progress in our diversity, equity and inclusion work, and continued to enhance career developments, talent analytics and financial health capabilities for employees, each as discussed in greater detail below under the heading "Human Capital" in Item 1.G.
COVID-19 RESPONSE
The accomplishments described above were all achieved despite managing through the continuing effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, the Company's specific response to the COVID-19 pandemic included transitioning our workforce to a flexible hybrid model from the remote work environment, in a second straight year of record-breaking NIW. We continued to position employees to succeed and provide continuing high service levels. We focused on ensuring employee safety, business continuity and legal compliance; and maintained and enhanced morale through extensive authentic communications, collaboration and an environment of support and trust.
OVERVIEW OF THE PRIVATE MORTGAGE INSURANCE INDUSTRY AND ITS OPERATING ENVIRONMENT
We established the modern PMI industry in 1957 to provide a private market alternative to federal government insurance programs. PMI covers losses from homeowner defaults on residential mortgage loans, reducing, and in some instances eliminating, the loss to the insured institution.
Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have been the major purchasers of the mortgage loans underlying new insurance written by private mortgage insurers. The GSEs purchase residential mortgage loans as part of their governmental mandate to provide liquidity in the secondary mortgage market. The GSEs cannot buy low down payment mortgage loans without certain forms of credit enhancement. Private mortgage insurance has generally been purchased by lenders in primary mortgage market transactions to satisfy this credit enhancement requirement. Therefore, PMI facilitates the sale of low down payment mortgages in the secondary mortgage market to the GSEs and plays an important role in the housing finance system by assisting consumers, especially first-time and low- and medium-wealth homebuyers, to finance homes with low down payment mortgages. PMI also reduces the regulatory capital that depository institutions are required to hold against certain low down payment mortgages that they hold as assets.
Because the GSEs have been the major purchasers of the mortgages underlying new insurance written by private mortgage insurers, the PMI industry in the U.S. is defined in large part by the requirements and practices of the GSEs. These requirements and practices, as well as those of the federal regulators that oversee the GSEs and lenders, impact the operating results and financial performance of private mortgage insurers. In 2008, the federal government took control of the GSEs through a conservatorship

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process. The FHFA is the conservator of the GSEs and has the authority to control and direct their operations.
The GSEs have been requested to submit Equitable Housing Finance Plans to the FHFA. The plans are to identify and address barriers to sustainable housing opportunities, including the GSEs’ goals and action plans to advance equity in housing finance for the next three years. The action plans, when finalized, may include methods to reduce mortgage costs for historically underserved borrowers, including mortgage insurance costs. The GSEs’ action plans will likely change certain of the GSEs’ business practices and those changes may affect the mortgage insurance industry.
As a result of the matters referred to above, the 2021 change in the Presidential Administration, the June 2021 appointment of a new Acting Director of the FHFA who has also been nominated to become the full-time Director, and the 2021 U.S. Supreme Court decision that allows the President to remove the FHFA Director at will, it is uncertain what role the GSEs, FHA and private capital, including private mortgage insurance, will play in the residential housing finance system in the future. The timing and impact on our business of any resulting changes is uncertain. Some changes would require Congressional action to implement and it is difficult to estimate when any action would be final and how long any associated phase-in period may last.
The GSEs have private mortgage insurer eligibility requirements, or PMIERs, for private mortgage insurers that insure loans delivered to or purchased by the GSEs. The financial requirements of the PMIERs require a mortgage insurer’s Available Assets to equal or exceed its Minimum Required Assets. MGIC is in compliance with the PMIERs and eligible to insure loans purchased by the GSEs. In calculating Minimum Required Assets, we receive significant credit for risk ceded under our reinsurance transactions. See "Reinsurance" in this Item 1 for information about our reinsurance transactions and "Regulation – Direct Regulation" in this Item 1 for information about our compliance with the financial requirements of the PMIERs.
The private mortgage insurance industry is greatly impacted by macroeconomic conditions that affect home loan originations and credit performance of home loans, including unemployment rates, home prices, restrictions on mortgage credit due to underwriting standards, interest rates, household formations and homeownership rates. During the years leading up to the financial crisis of the 2000s, the mortgage lending industry increasingly made home loans with higher risk profiles. In certain sections of this Annual Report, we discuss our insurance written in 2005-2008 separately from our insurance written in earlier and later years. Beginning in 2007, job creation slowed and the housing markets began slowing in certain areas, with declines in certain other areas. In 2008 and 2009, employment in the U.S. decreased substantially and nearly all geographic areas in the U.S. experienced home price declines. Together, these conditions resulted in significant adverse developments for us and our industry. The operating environment for private mortgage insurers materially improved after the financial crisis, as the economy recovered.
The COVID-19 pandemic had a material impact on our 2020 financial results. The increased level of unemployment and economic uncertainty resulted in an increase in the number of mortgage delinquencies for which we recorded increased loss reserves. After reaching 14.7% in April 2020, the unemployment
rate has continually declined through the end of 2021. The number of delinquent mortgages that we insure has also continually declined through the end of 2021, after reaching its recent peak in June 2020. As a result, our losses incurred significantly decreased in 2021 compared to 2020 and our net income significantly increased. For a discussion of the various ways the COVID-19 pandemic may impact us in the future, see our Risk Factor titled "The COVID-19 pandemic may materially impact our future financial results, business, liquidity and/or financial condition" in Item 1A.
During the first nine months of 2021, $455 billion of mortgages were insured with primary coverage by private mortgage insurers, compared to $600 billion for full year 2020 and $384 billion for full year 2019. The 2021 and 2020 volumes were significantly greater than the recent low in 2010 of $70 billion and greater than the volumes of 2001 through 2007 when, on average, approximately $311 billion of mortgages were insured with primary coverage by private mortgage insurers. The high 2021 and 2020 volumes resulted, in part, from historically low interest rates driving sustained borrower demand, including for refinances, and the effect that the COVID-19 pandemic had on demand for homes.
For most of our business, we and other private mortgage insurers compete directly with federal and state governmental and quasi-governmental agencies that sponsor government-backed mortgage insurance programs, principally the FHA, VA and USDA. The publication Inside Mortgage Finance estimates that in the first three quarters of 2021, the FHA accounted for 23.9% of low down payment residential mortgages that were subject to FHA, VA, USDA or primary private mortgage insurance, compared to 23.4% in 2020 and 28.2% in 2019. Beginning in 2012, the FHA’s market share has been as low as 23.4% (2020) and as high as 42.1% (in 2012). Factors that influence the FHA’s market share include relative rates and fees, underwriting guidelines and loan limits of the FHA, VA, private mortgage insurers and the GSEs; lenders' perceptions of legal risks under FHA versus GSE programs; flexibility for the FHA to establish new products as a result of federal legislation and programs; returns expected to be obtained by lenders for Ginnie Mae securitization of FHA-insured loans compared to those obtained from selling loans to the GSEs for securitization; and differences in policy terms, such as the ability of a borrower to cancel insurance coverage under certain circumstances. The focus of the Presidential Administration on equitable housing finance and sustainable housing opportunities increases the likelihood of a reduction in the FHA’s mortgage insurance premium rates. Such a rate reduction would negatively impact our NIW; however, given the many factors that influence the FHA's market share, it is difficult to predict the impact. In addition, we also cannot predict how the factors that affect the FHA’s share of NIW will change in the future.
Inside Mortgage Finance estimates that in the first three quarters of 2021, the VA accounted for 30.9% of all low down payment residential mortgages that were subject to FHA, VA, USDA or primary private mortgage insurance, compared to 30.9% in 2020 and 25.2% in 2019. Beginning in 2012, the VA's market share has been as low as 22.8% (in 2013) and as high a 30.9% (in 2020 and the first three quarters of 2021). We believe that the VA’s market share has generally been elevated in recent years because of an increase in the number of borrowers that are eligible for the VA’s program, which offers 100% LTV loans and charges a one-time funding fee that can be included in the loan amount, and because

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eligible borrowers have opted to use the VA program when refinancing their mortgages.
The private mortgage insurance industry also competes with alternatives to mortgage insurance, such as investors using risk mitigation and credit risk transfer techniques other than PMI, including capital market transactions entered into by the GSEs and banks; lenders and other investors holding mortgages in portfolio and self-insuring; and “piggyback loans,” which combine a first lien loan with a second lien loan. In 2018, the GSE initiated secondary mortgage market programs with loan level mortgage default coverage provided by various (re)insurers that are not mortgage insurers governed by PMIERs, and that are not selected by the lenders. While we view these programs as competing with traditional private mortgage insurance, we participate in them through an affiliate of MGIC.
The GSEs (and other investors) have also used other forms of credit enhancement that did not involve traditional private mortgage insurance, such as engaging in credit-linked note transactions executed in the capital markets, or using other forms of debt issuances or securitizations that transfer credit risk directly to other investors, including competitors and an affiliate of MGIC; and using other risk mitigation techniques in conjunction with reduced levels of private mortgage insurance coverage.
In addition to the FHA, VA, other governmental agencies and the alternatives to mortgage insurance discussed above, we compete with other mortgage insurers. The level of competition, including price competition, within the private mortgage insurance industry has remained intense over the past several years. See "Our Products and Services – Sales and Marketing and Competition – Competition" below for more information about the impact on our business of competition in the private mortgage insurance industry.
In addition to being subject to the requirements and practices of the GSEs, private mortgage insurers are subject to comprehensive, detailed regulation by state insurance departments. The insurance laws of 16 jurisdictions, including Wisconsin, MGIC's domiciliary state, require a mortgage insurer to maintain a minimum amount of statutory capital relative to the RIF (or a similar measure) in order for the mortgage insurer to continue to write new business. The NAIC previously announced plans to revise the minimum capital and surplus requirements for mortgage insurers that are provided for in its Mortgage Guaranty Insurance Model Act. In December 2019, a working group of state regulators released an exposure draft of a revised Mortgage Guaranty Insurance Model Act and a risk-based capital framework to establish capital requirements for mortgage insurers, although no date has been established by which the NAIC must propose revisions to the capital requirements.
GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT OUR COMPANY
We are a Wisconsin corporation organized in 1984. Our principal office is located at MGIC Plaza, 250 East Kilbourn Avenue, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202 (telephone number (414) 347-6480). As used in this annual report, “we,” “our” and “us” refer to MGIC Investment Corporation’s consolidated operations or to MGIC Investment Corporation, as a separate entity, as the context requires, and “MGIC” refers to Mortgage Guaranty Insurance Corporation.
Our revenues and losses may be materially affected by the risk factors that are included in Item 1A of this annual report and are an integral part of this annual report. These risk factors may also cause actual results to differ materially from the results contemplated by forward looking statements that we may make. Forward looking statements consist of statements that relate to matters other than historical fact. Among others, statements that include words such as we “believe,” “anticipate” or “expect,” or words of similar import, are forward looking statements. We are not undertaking any obligation to update any forward looking statements or other statements we may make even though these statements may be affected by events or circumstances occurring after the forward looking statements or other statements were made. No reader of this annual report should rely on these statements being current at any time other than the time at which this annual report was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
B. Our Products and Services
MORTGAGE INSURANCE
In general, there are two principal types of private mortgage insurance: “primary” and “pool.”
Primary Insurance. Primary insurance provides mortgage default protection on individual loans and covers a percentage of the unpaid loan principal, delinquent interest and certain expenses associated with the default and subsequent foreclosure on the mortgage or sale of the underlying property (collectively, the “claim amount”). In addition to the loan principal, the claim amount is affected by the mortgage note rate and the time necessary to complete the foreclosure or sale process. The insurer generally pays the coverage percentage of the claim amount specified in the primary policy but has the option to pay 100% of the claim amount and acquire title to the property. Primary insurance is generally written on first mortgage loans secured by owner occupied "single-family" homes, which are one-to-four family homes and condominiums. Primary insurance can be written on first liens secured by non-owner occupied single-family homes, which are referred to in the home mortgage lending industry as investor loans, and on vacation or second homes. Primary coverage can be used on any type of residential mortgage loan instrument approved by the mortgage insurer.
References in this document to amounts of insurance written or in force, risk written or in force, and other historical data related to our insurance refer only to direct (before giving effect to reinsurance) primary insurance, unless otherwise indicated. Primary insurance may be written on a flow basis, in which loans are insured in individual, loan-by-loan transactions, or may be written on a bulk basis, in which each loan in a portfolio of loans is individually insured in a single, bulk transaction. Our new primary insurance written was $120.2 billion in 2021, compared to $112.1 billion in 2020 and $63.4 billion in 2019. The 2021 increase compared to 2020 reflects an increase in purchase mortgage originations we insured, only partially offset by a decrease in refinance mortgage originations we insured.

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The following charts show, on a direct basis, our primary IIF and primary RIF as of December 31 for the years indicated.
Primary insurance and risk in force
(In billions)20212020201920182017
Primary IIF$274.4 $246.6 $222.3 $209.7 $194.9 
Primary RIF69.3 61.8 57.2 54.1 50.3 

For loans sold to a GSE, the coverage percentage must comply with the requirements established by the particular GSE to which the loan is delivered. The GSEs have different loan purchase programs that allow different levels of mortgage insurance coverage. Under the “charter coverage” program, on certain loans lenders may choose a mortgage insurance coverage percentage that is less than the GSEs’ “standard coverage” and only the minimum required by the GSEs’ charters, with the GSEs paying a lower price for such loans. In 2021, a substantial majority of our volume was on loans with GSE standard or higher coverage.
For loans that are not sold to the GSEs, the lender determines the coverage percentage from those that we offer. Higher coverage percentages generally result in increased severity, which is the amount paid on a claim. We charge higher premium rates for higher coverage percentages. However, there can be no assurance that the higher premium rates adequately reflect the risks associated with higher coverage percentages. In accordance with GAAP for the mortgage insurance industry, reserves for losses are only established for policies covering delinquent loans. Because, historically, relatively few delinquencies occur in the early years of a book of business, the higher premium revenue from higher coverage has historically been recognized before any significant higher losses resulting from that higher coverage may be incurred. For more information, see “Exposure to Catastrophic Loss; Defaults; Claims; Loss Mitigation – Claims.”
In general, mortgage insurance coverage cannot be terminated by the insurer. However, subject to certain restrictions on our rescission rights as are specified in our insurance policy, we may terminate or rescind coverage for, among other reasons, non-payment of premium, certain material misrepresentations and fraud in connection with the application for the insurance policy. Mortgage insurance coverage is renewable at the option of the insured lender, at the renewal rate fixed when the loan was initially insured. Lenders may cancel insurance written on a flow basis at any time at their option or because of mortgage repayment, which may be accelerated because of the refinancing of mortgages.
In the case of a loan purchased by a GSE, a borrower may request termination of insurance based on the home’s current value if certain LTV ratio and seasoning requirements are met and the borrowers have an acceptable payment history. For loans seasoned between two and five years, the LTV ratio must be 75% or less, and for loans seasoned more than five years the LTV ratio must be 80% or less. If the borrower has made substantial improvements to the property, the GSEs allow for cancellation once the LTV ratio reaches 80% or less with no minimum seasoning requirement.
Mortgage insurance for loans secured by one-family, primary residences can be canceled under HOPA. In general, HOPA requires a servicer to cancel the mortgage insurance if a borrower requests cancellation when the principal balance of the
loan is first scheduled to reach 80% of the original value, or reaches that percentage through payments, if 1) the borrower is current on the loan and has a “good payment history” (as defined by HOPA), 2) if required by the mortgage owner, the borrower provides evidence that the value of the property has not declined below the original value, and 3) if required by the mortgage owner, the borrower certifies that the borrower’s equity in the property is not subject to a subordinate lien. Additionally, HOPA requires mortgage insurance to terminate automatically when the principal balance of the loan is first scheduled to reach 78% of the original value and the borrower is current on loan payments or thereafter becomes current. Annually, servicers must inform borrowers of their right to cancel or terminate mortgage insurance. The provisions of HOPA described above apply only to borrower paid mortgage insurance, which is described below.
Coverage tends to continue for borrowers experiencing economic difficulties or living in areas experiencing home price depreciation. The persistency of coverage for those borrowers, coupled with cancellation of coverage for other borrowers, can increase the percentage of an insurer’s portfolio covering loans with more credit risk. This development can also occur during periods of heavy mortgage refinancing because borrowers experiencing property value appreciation are less likely to require mortgage insurance at the time of refinancing, while borrowers not experiencing property value appreciation are more likely to continue to require mortgage insurance at the time of refinancing or not qualify for refinancing at all (including if they have experienced economic difficulties) and thus remain subject to the mortgage insurance coverage.
The percentage of NIW on loans representing refinances was 20% for 2021, compared to 36% for 2020 and 19% for 2019. When a borrower refinances a mortgage loan insured by us by paying it off in full with the proceeds of a new mortgage that is also insured by us, the insurance on that existing mortgage is cancelled, and insurance on the new mortgage is considered to be NIW. Therefore, continuation of our coverage from a refinanced loan to a new loan results in both a cancellation of insurance and NIW. When a lender and borrower modify a loan rather than replace it with a new one or enter into a new loan pursuant to a loan modification program, our insurance continues without being cancelled, assuming that we consent to the modification or new loan. As a result, such modifications or new loans are not included in our NIW.
In addition to varying with the coverage percentage, our premium rates for insurance have varied depending upon the perceived risk of a claim on the insured loan and thus have taken into account, among other things, the LTV ratio, the borrower’s credit score and DTI ratio, the number of borrowers, the property location, the mortgage term and whether the property is the borrower’s primary residence. In 2019 we introduced MiQ, our risk-based pricing system that establishes our premium rates based on more risk attributes than were considered in 2018. In recent years, the mortgage insurance industry has materially reduced its use of standard rate cards, which were fairly consistent among competitors, and correspondingly increased its use of risk-based pricing systems and customized rate plans, both of which typically have rates lower than the standard rate card. Premium rates cannot be changed after the issuance of coverage.
The borrower’s mortgage loan instrument may require the borrower to pay the mortgage insurance premium. Our industry

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refers to the related mortgage insurance as “borrower-paid” or BPMI. If the borrower is not required to pay the premium and mortgage insurance is required in connection with the origination of the loan, then the premium is paid by the lender, who may recover the premium through an increase in the note rate on the mortgage or higher origination fees. Our industry refers to the related mortgage insurance as “lender-paid” or LPMI. Most of our primary IIF is BPMI.
There are several payment plans available to the borrower, or lender, as the case may be. Under the single premium plan, the borrower or lender pays us in advance a single payment covering a specified term exceeding twelve months. Under the monthly premium plan, the borrower or lender pays us a monthly premium payment to provide only one month of coverage. Under the annual premium plan, an annual premium is paid to us in advance, with annual renewal premiums paid in advance thereafter.
During 2021, 2020 and 2019, the single premium plan represented approximately 7%, 9% and 16%, respectively, of our NIW. The monthly premium plan represented approximately 93%, 91% and 84%, respectively. The annual premium plan represented less than 1% of NIW in each of those years. Depending upon the actual life of a single premium policy and its premium rate relative to that of a monthly premium policy, a single premium policy may generate more or less premium than a monthly premium policy over its life.
Pool and Other Insurance. Pool insurance is generally used as an additional “credit enhancement” for certain secondary market mortgage transactions. Pool insurance generally covers the amount of the loss on a defaulted mortgage loan that exceeds the claim payment under the primary coverage, if primary insurance is required on that mortgage loan, as well as the total loss on a defaulted mortgage loan which did not require primary insurance. Pool insurance may have a stated aggregate loss limit for a pool of loans and may also have a deductible under which no losses are paid by the insurer until losses on the pool of loans exceed the deductible. MGIC has written no new pool insurance since 2008; however, for a variety of reasons, including responding to capital market alternatives to PMI and customer demands, MGIC may write pool risk in the future. As of December 31, 2021, less than 1% of our RIF was associated with pool insurance.
In connection with the GSEs' credit risk transfer programs, we provide insurance and reinsurance covering portions of the credit
risk related to certain reference pools of mortgages acquired by the GSEs.
MORTGAGE INSURANCE PORTFOLIO
Geographic Dispersion. The following tables reflect the percentage of primary RIF in the top 10 jurisdictions and top 10 core-based statistical areas for the MGIC Book at December 31, 2021. We refer to the insurance that has been written by MGIC (including MGIC Indemnity Corporation, a subsidiary of MGIC, for portions of 2012 and 2013) as the "MGIC Book."
Top 10 jurisdictions – RIF
California8.2 %
Texas7.4 %
Florida7.0 %
Pennsylvania4.9 %
Illinois4.2 %
Virginia3.8 %
Ohio3.8 %
North Carolina3.7 %
Georgia3.6 %
New York3.5 %
Total50.1 %
Top 10 core-based statistical areas – RIF
Washington-Arlington-Alexandria3.0 %
Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights2.7 %
Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell2.7 %
Houston-Woodlands-Sugar Land2.3 %
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington1.9 %
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale1.7 %
Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale1.7 %
Philadelphia1.6 %
Dallas-Plano-Irving1.5 %
Riverside-San Bernardino1.5 %
Total20.6 %
The percentages shown above for various core-based statistical areas can be affected by changes, from time to time, in the federal government’s definition of a core-based statistical area.



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Policy Year. The following table sets forth for the MGIC Book the dispersion and certain statistics associated with our primary IIF and RIF as of December 31, 2021, by year(s) of policy origination since we began operations in 1985.

Primary insurance in force and risk in force by policy year
(in thousands)Insurance in ForceRisk In ForceWeighted Avg. Interest RateDelinquency Rate %Cede Rate %% of Original Remaining
Policy YearTotal% of TotalTotal% of Total
2004 and prior$1,796,359 0.7 %$500,433 0.7 %7.3 %12.6 %0.5 %N.M.
2005-200814,050,656 5.1 %3,727,818 5.4 %6.9 %11.5 %3.8 %5.8 %
2009-201510,518,016 3.8 %2,864,823 4.1 %4.3 %5.0 %14.3 %5.9 %
20169,755,569 3.6 %2,600,952 3.8 %3.9 %3.7 %13.0 %20.3 %
201710,967,734 4.0 %2,830,652 4.1 %4.2 %4.8 %0.1 %22.3 %
201811,132,886 4.1 %2,827,458 4.1 %4.8 %5.6 %0.9 %22.2 %
201923,282,490 8.5 %5,902,427 8.5 %4.1 %3.1 %27.1 %35.8 %
202082,920,688 30.1 %20,163,569 29.0 %3.2 %1.0 %28.0 %72.5 %
2021109,980,004 40.1 %27,919,338 40.3 %3.1 %0.3 %29.0 %95.9 %
Total$274,404,402 100.0 %$69,337,470 100.0 %


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Product Characteristics. The following table reflects, at the dates and by the categories indicated, the total dollar amount of primary RIF for the MGIC Book and the percentage of that primary RIF, as determined on the basis of information available on the date of mortgage origination.
Characteristics of primary risk in force
December 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Primary RIF (In millions):
$69,337 $61,812 
Loan-to-value ratios:
95.01% and above14.7 %14.7 %
90.01 - 95.00%50.4 %50.1 %
85.01 - 90.00%28.1 %28.3 %
80.01 - 85.00%6.4 %6.4 %
80% and below0.4 %0.5 %
Total100.0 %100.0 %
Debt-to-income ratios:
45.01% and above13.6 %14.2 %
38.01% - 45.00%31.5 %33.4 %
38% and below54.9 %52.4 %
Total100.0 %100.0 %
Loan Type:
Fixed(1)
99.4 %99.2 %
ARMs(2)
0.6 %0.8 %
Total100.0 %100.0 %
Original Insured Loan Amount:(3)
Conforming loan limit and below97.5 %97.4 %
Non-conforming2.5 %2.6 %
Total100.0 %100.0 %
Mortgage Term:
15-years and under1.7 %1.8 %
Over 15 years98.3 %98.2 %
Total100.0 %100.0 %
Property Type:
Single-family detached86.9 %87.6 %
Condominium/Townhouse/Other attached12.4 %11.7 %
Other(4)
0.7 %0.7 %
Total100.0 %100.0 %
Occupancy Status:
Owner occupied97.4 %97.6 %
Second home2.4 %2.1 %
Investor property0.2 %0.3 %
Total100.0 %100.0 %
Documentation:
Reduced:(5)
Stated
0.7 %1.0 %
No
0.3 %0.2 %
Full documentation99.0 %98.8 %
Total100.0 %100.0 %

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Characteristics of primary risk in force
December 31, 2021December 31, 2020
FICO Score:(6)
760 and greater
42.1 %40.3 %
740 - 759
17.2 %17.0 %
720 - 739
13.7 %13.8 %
700 - 719
11.1 %11.2 %
680 - 699
7.9 %8.3 %
660 - 679
3.3 %3.7 %
640 - 659
2.2 %2.5 %
639 and less
2.5 %3.2 %
Total100.0 %100.0 %
(1)Includes fixed rate mortgages with temporary buydowns (where in effect, the applicable interest rate is typically reduced by one or two percentage points during the first two years of the loan and then increased thereafter to the original interest rate), ARMs in which the initial interest rate is fixed for at least five years, and balloon payment mortgages (a loan with a maturity, typically five to seven years, that is shorter than the loan’s amortization period).
(2)Includes ARMs where payments adjust fully with interest rate adjustments. Also includes pay option ARMs and other ARMs with negative amortization features, which collectively at each of December 31, 2021 and 2020, represented 0.1% and 0.2%, respectively, of primary RIF. As indicated in note (1), does not include ARMs in which the initial interest rate is fixed for at least five years. For both December 31, 2021 and 2020, ARMs with LTV ratios in excess of 90% represented 0.1% and 0.2%, of primary RIF, respectively.
(3)Loans within the conforming loan limit have an original principal balance that does not exceed the maximum original principal balance of loans that the GSEs will purchase. The conforming loan limit for one unit properties was $484,350 for 2019, $510,400 for 2020, and $548,250 for 2021, and is $647,200 for 2022. The limit for high cost communities has been higher and is $970,800 for 2022. Non-conforming loans are loans with an original principal balance above the conforming loan limit.
(4)Includes cooperatives and manufactured homes deemed to be real estate.
(5)Reduced documentation loans were originated prior to 2009 under programs in which there was a reduced level of verification or disclosure compared to traditional mortgage loan underwriting, including programs in which the borrower’s income and/or assets were disclosed in the loan application but there was no verification of those disclosures ("stated" documentation) and programs in which there was no disclosure of income or assets in the loan application ("no" documentation). In accordance with industry practice, loans approved by GSE and other automated underwriting (AU) systems under “doc waiver” programs that did not require verification of borrower income are classified by us as “full documentation.” We understand that the GSEs terminated their “doc waiver” programs in the second half of 2008.
(6)Represents the FICO score at loan origination. The weighted average “decision FICO score” at loan origination for NIW in 2021 was 749 compared to 752 in 2020. The FICO score for a loan with multiple borrowers is the lowest of the borrowers’ decision FICO scores. A borrower’s “decision FICO score” is determined as follows: if there are three FICO scores available, the middle FICO score is used; if two FICO scores are available, the lower of the two is used; if only one FICO score is available, it is used. A FICO score is a score based on a borrower’s credit history generated by a model developed by Fair Isaac Corporation.


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OTHER PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
Contract Underwriting. A non-insurance subsidiary of ours provides contract underwriting services for lenders, pursuant to which loans are underwritten to conform to prescribed guidelines. The guidelines might be the lender's own guidelines or the guidelines of Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or a non-GSE investor. These services are provided for loans that require private mortgage insurance as well as for loans that do not require private mortgage insurance.
Other. We provide insurance and reinsurance related to certain mortgages under GSE credit risk transfer programs. The amount of risk associated with these transactions is currently $321 million.
CUSTOMERS
Originators of residential mortgage loans such as savings institutions, commercial banks, mortgage brokers, credit unions, mortgage bankers and other lenders have historically determined the placement of mortgage insurance written on a flow basis and as a result are our customers. To obtain primary insurance from us written on a flow basis, a mortgage lender must first apply for and receive a mortgage guaranty master policy from us. Our top 10 customers generated 36% of our NIW on a flow basis in 2021, 41% in 2020 and 24% in 2019. Our relationships with our customers could be adversely affected by a variety of factors, including if our premium rates are higher than those of our competitors, our underwriting requirements are more restrictive than those of our competitors, or our customers are dissatisfied with our claims-paying practices (including insurance policy rescissions and claim curtailments). Information about some of the other factors that can affect a mortgage insurer’s relationship with its customers can be found in our risk factor titled “Competition or changes in our relationships with our customers could reduce our revenues, reduce our premium yields and/or increase our losses” in Item 1A.
SALES AND MARKETING AND COMPETITION
Sales and Marketing. Our employees sell our insurance products throughout all regions of the United States and in Puerto Rico and Guam.
Competition. Our competition includes other mortgage insurers, governmental agencies and products designed to eliminate the need to purchase private mortgage insurance. For flow business, we and other private mortgage insurers compete directly with federal and state governmental and quasi-governmental agencies, principally the FHA and the VA. The FHA, VA and USDA sponsor government-backed mortgage insurance programs, and it is estimated that during the first nine months of 2021, they accounted for a combined approximately 56.7% of the total low down payment residential mortgages which were subject to FHA, VA, USDA or primary private mortgage insurance, compared to 56.1% and 55.3% in 2020 and 2019, respectively. For more information about the market share of the FHA and the VA, see “Overview of the Private Mortgage Insurance Industry and its Operating Environment” above.
In addition to competition from the FHA, VA and USDA, we and other private mortgage insurers face competition from state-supported mortgage insurance funds in several states. From time to time, other state legislatures and agencies consider expanding the authority of their state governments to insure residential mortgages.
The PMI industry is highly competitive. We believe that we currently compete with other private mortgage insurers based on premium rates, underwriting requirements, financial strength (including based on credit or financial strength ratings), customer relationships, name recognition, reputation, strength of management teams and field organizations, the ancillary products and services provided to lenders, and the effective use of technology and innovation in the delivery and servicing of our mortgage insurance products.
The U.S. PMI industry currently consists of six active mortgage insurers and their affiliates, including MGIC. Our market share (as measured by NIW) was 20.5% in the first nine months of 2021, compared to 18.7% in 2020 and 16.5% in 2019, in each case excluding HARP refinances. (source: Inside Mortgage Finance).
If we are unable to compete effectively in the current or any future markets as a result of the financial strength ratings assigned to our insurance subsidiaries, our future new insurance written could be negatively affected. The substantial majority of our insurance written since 2008 has been for loans delivered to or purchased by the GSEs. The current PMIERs of each of the GSEs do not require an insurer to maintain minimum financial strength ratings. However, depending upon the evolution of housing finance reform, the level of issuances of non-GSE MBS may increase in the future. Financial strength ratings may be considered by issuers of non-GSE MBS in determining whether to purchase private mortgage insurance for loans supporting such securities. In assigning financial strength ratings, in addition to considering the adequacy of the mortgage insurer’s capital to withstand very high claim scenarios under assumptions determined by the rating agency, we believe rating agencies review a mortgage insurer’s historical and projected operating performance, franchise risk, business outlook, competitive position, management, corporate strategy, enterprise risk management and other factors. The rating agency issuing the financial strength rating can withdraw or change its rating at any time. At the time that this annual report was finalized, the financial strength of MGIC was rated A- (with a stable outlook) by A.M. Best, Baa1 (with a stable outlook) by Moody’s Investors Service and BBB+ (with a stable outlook) by Standard & Poor’s Rating Services.
C. Risk Management
ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT
The Company has an enterprise risk management (“ERM”) framework that it believes is commensurate with the size, nature and complexity of the Company’s business activities (all of which relate to insuring or reinsuring mortgage credit risk) and strategies. Among the key objectives of the ERM framework are to have a clear and well documented shared understanding, by senior management and the Board, of the Company’s risk management philosophy and overall appetite for risk, and that there are appropriate monitoring, management and reporting mechanisms to support the framework.
Risk Governance. The Company maintains a Senior Management Oversight Committee (“SMOC”) that, at the management level, serves as its primary risk management governance organization. The SMOC oversees the Company’s ERM framework; oversees how the Company aligns its people, processes and technology capabilities with the strategic and business issues critical to the Company, and it maintains an enterprise view of risk across a set

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of identified key risks (see “Risk Identification and Assessment” below); and provides reporting to the Risk Management Committee of the Company’s Board of Directors (“RMC”). The SMOC, of which the CEO is a member, is chaired by the Company’s Executive Vice President and Chief Risk Officer, who is the principal management liaison to the RMC.
The Board implements its risk oversight function as a whole and through delegation to its Committees which meet regularly and report back to the full Board. The Risk Management Committee coordinates with the Board and other Board Committees regarding the assignment to the Board and Committees of oversight responsibilities for all risks considered to have the greatest impact on the Company's ability to accomplish its strategic goals. Each Committee's charter describes its principal responsibilities, including its oversight responsibility for applicable key risks.
Environmental, Social and Governance ("ESG") Risk Governance. The Company maintains an ESG Executive Council that, at the management level, supports the Company's on-going commitment to environmental, health and safety, corporate social responsibility, corporate governance, sustainability, and other public policy matters relevant to the Company. In performing this general responsibility, the Council has discretion to: assist in setting the Company’s general strategy with respect to ESG matters; identify current and emerging ESG issues that may affect the Company’s business, strategy, operations, performance, or public image; make recommendations regarding policies, practices, procedures, or disclosures to address ESG matters; implement systems to monitor ESG matters when necessary; oversee the Company’s internal and external reporting and disclosures surrounding ESG matters; and advise on shareholder or stakeholder concerns regarding ESG matters. The ESG Executive Council will make regular reports to the SMOC and to the relevant Committee(s) of the Board of Directors of the Company.
The Board has delegated oversight for the following ESG matters to the following committees, who regularly report their actions to the Board:
Risk Management Committee: Mortgage Credit Risk, including risks associated with climate change.
Management Development, Nominating and Governance Committee: Corporate governance and human capital management policies such as executive compensation; succession planning; recruitment, retention and development of management resources; workforce planning, recruitment morale and talent; diversity and inclusion initiatives; and work environment, including health and safety.
Securities Investment Committee: Our investment portfolio; such oversight may include consideration of ESG factors.
Audit Committee: Disclosure controls and procedures relating to financial reports made to the SEC, as well as ESG reports.
Business Transformation and Technology Committee: Cybersecurity and business continuity.
Risk Management and Controls. The Company has established enterprise-wide policies, procedures and processes to allow it to identify, assess, monitor and manage the Company’s various
risks. Management of these risks is an interdepartmental endeavor, with oversight by the Chief Risk Officer and the SMOC. The Company’s Internal Audit function, which reports to the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors, provides independent ongoing assessments of the Company’s management of certain enterprise risks and reports its findings to the Audit Committee.
Risk Identification and Assessment. On a regular basis, the Company monitors key risks with a focus on identifying risks or changes to risks with the greatest impact on the Company's ability to accomplish its strategic goals. In addition to the ongoing monitoring, the Company also identifies key risks in a bottom up process facilitated through workshops and discussions during an annual compliance and risk forum with co-workers across all business functions. The results of the identification process are reported to and reviewed annually by the SMOC and presented to the RMC and/or the full Board.
Risk Reporting and Communication. The Company's Risk Management department produces various analyses, reports and key risk indicators (“KRIs”) that are reported to the SMOC, the RMC and the Board quarterly.  For our largest risk exposure, mortgage credit risk, these KRIs include risk factors for the Company’s NIW, IIF, quality control and claim activity, and the quarterly reports include performance relative to metrics and thresholds. Each of the other Board Committees also receive regular reporting concerning the risks they oversee.
Although the Company has in place the ERM framework discussed above, it may not be effective in identifying, or adequate in controlling or mitigating, the risks we face. For more information, see our Risk Factor titled "If our risk management programs are not effective in identifying, or adequate in controlling or mitigating, the risks we face, or if the models used in our businesses are inaccurate, it could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition" in Item 1A.
MORTGAGE CREDIT RISK
We believe that mortgage credit risk is materially affected by:

the condition of the economy, including the direction of change in home prices and employment, in the area in which the property is located;
the borrower’s credit profile, including the borrower’s credit history, DTI ratio and cash reserves, and the willingness of a borrower with sufficient resources to make mortgage payments when the mortgage balance exceeds the value of the home;
the loan product, which encompasses the LTV ratio, the type of loan instrument, including whether the instrument provides for fixed or variable payments and the amortization schedule, the type of property and the purpose of the loan;
origination practices of lenders and the percentage of coverage on insured loans; and
the size of insured loans.

We believe that, excluding other factors, claim incidence increases:

during periods of economic contraction and home price depreciation, including when these conditions may not be

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nationwide, compared to periods of economic expansion and home price appreciation;
for loans to borrowers with lower FICO scores compared to loans to borrowers with higher FICO scores;
for loans to borrowers with higher DTI ratios compared to loans to borrowers with lower DTI ratios;
for loans with less than full underwriting documentation compared to loans with full underwriting documentation;
for loans with higher LTV ratios compared to loans with lower LTV ratios;
for ARMs when the reset interest rate significantly exceeds the interest rate at the time of loan origination;
for loans that permit the deferral of principal amortization compared to loans that require principal amortization with each monthly payment;
for loans in which the original loan amount exceeds the conforming loan limit compared to loans below that limit; and
for cash out refinance loans compared to rate and term refinance loans.

Other types of loan characteristics relating to the individual loan or borrower may also affect the risk potential for a loan. The presence of a number of higher-risk characteristics in a loan materially increases the likelihood of a claim on such a loan unless there are other characteristics to mitigate the risk.

We charge higher premium rates to reflect the increased risk of claim incidence that we perceive is associated with a loan. Not all higher risk characteristics are reflected in our premium rates; however, in 2019 we introduced MiQ, our risk-based pricing system that establishes our premium rates based on more risk attributes than were considered in 2018. There can be no assurance that our premium rates adequately reflect the increased risk, particularly in a period of economic recession, high unemployment, slowing home price appreciation or home price declines. For additional information, see our risk factors in Item 1A, including the one titled “The premiums we charge may not be adequate to compensate us for our liabilities for losses and as a result any inadequacy could materially affect our financial condition and results of operations.”

Underwriting Insurance Applications. Applications for mortgage insurance are submitted to us through both our delegated and
non-delegated options. Under the delegated option, applications are submitted to us electronically and we rely upon the lender’s representations and warranties that the data submitted is true, accurate and consistent with the documents in the lender's loan origination file, when making our insurance decision. If the loan data submitted meets the underwriting requirements, a commitment to insure the loan is immediately issued. If the requirements are not met, the loan is reviewed by one of our underwriters. Non-delegated applications are submitted with documents from the lender’s loan origination file. We apply our underwriting guidelines, eligibility criteria and rating plans to determine coverage eligibility and premium rate. If the loan is eligible for coverage, we will issue a commitment to insure the loan.

Beginning in 2013, we aligned most of our underwriting requirements with Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac for loans that receive and are processed in accordance with certain approval recommendations from a GSE automated underwriting system. Our underwriting requirements are available on our website at http://www.mgic.com/underwriting/index.html. Our underwriters are authorized to approve loans that do not meet all of our underwriting requirements under certain circumstances.

Exposure to Catastrophic Losses. The PMI industry experienced catastrophic losses in the mid-to-late 1980s, similar to the losses we experienced in 2007-2013. For background information about such losses in 2007-2013, as well as information about the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, refer to “General – Overview of Private Mortgage Insurance Industry and its Operating Environment” above.
Delinquencies. The claim cycle on PMI generally begins with the insurer’s receipt of notification of a delinquency on an insured loan from the loan servicer. For reporting purposes, a loan is generally considered to be delinquent when it is two or more payments past due. Most servicers report delinquent loans to us within this two month period. The incidence of delinquency is affected by a variety of factors, including the level of borrower income growth, unemployment, health issues, family status, the level of interest rates, rates of home price appreciation or depreciation and general borrower creditworthiness. Delinquencies that are not cured result in a claim to us. See “– Claims.” Delinquencies may be cured by the borrower bringing current the delinquent loan payments or by a sale of the property and the satisfaction of all amounts due under the mortgage. In addition, when a policy is rescinded or a claim is denied we remove the loan from our delinquency inventory.

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The following table shows the number of insured primary and pool loans in the MGIC Book, the related number of delinquent loans and the percentage of delinquent loans, or delinquency rate, as of December 31, 2017-2021.
Delinquency statistics for the MGIC book
December 31,
20212020201920182017
Primary Insurance:
Insured loans in force1,164,9841,126,0791,079,5781,058,2921,023,951
Delinquent loans33,29057,71030,02832,89846,556
Delinquency rate – all loans2.8%5.1%2.8%3.1%4.6%
Defaulted loans in our claims received inventory211159538809954
Pool Insurance:
Insured loans in force16,34218,28820,31823,67531,364
Delinquent loans4986806538591,309
Delinquency rate3.1%3.7%3.2%3.6%4.2%
Different geographical areas may experience different delinquency rates due to varying localized economic conditions from year to year and the amount of time it takes for foreclosures to be completed for uncured delinquencies. The primary delinquency rate for the top 15 jurisdictions (based on December 31, 2021 delinquency inventory) at December 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019 appears in table the below.
Primary delinquency rate by jurisdiction
 202120202019
Florida *3.7 %7.5 %3.4 %
Texas3.1 %6.1 %3.3 %
Illinois *3.4 %5.9 %3.2 %
California3.2 %6.1 %2.1 %
New York *4.3 %6.9 %5.3 %
Pennsylvania *2.5 %4.0 %2.8 %
Ohio *2.4 %4.0 %2.3 %
Georgia3.1 %6.2 %3.1 %
New Jersey *4.1 %7.0 %3.9 %
Michigan2.4 %4.0 %2.0 %
North Carolina2.3 %4.2 %2.6 %
Maryland3.3 %6.0 %3.6 %
Virginia1.9 %4.2 %1.9 %
Louisiana *5.7 %7.7 %5.2 %
Indiana2.8 %4.4 %3.1 %
All other jurisdictions2.5 %4.4 %2.5 %
Note: Asterisk denotes jurisdictions in the table above that predominately use a judicial foreclosure process, which generally increases the amount of time it takes for a foreclosure to be completed.
The primary delinquency inventory in those same jurisdictions at December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 appears in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis – Consolidated Results of Operations – Losses and expenses – Loss Reserves,” in Item 7.

Claims. Claims result from delinquencies that are not cured or a short sale that we approve. Whether a claim results from an uncured delinquency depends, in large part, on the borrower’s equity in the home at the time of delinquency, the borrower’s or the lender’s ability to sell the home for an amount sufficient to satisfy all amounts due under the mortgage and the willingness and ability of the borrower and lender to enter into a loan modification that provides for a cure of the delinquency. Various factors affect the frequency and amount of claims, including local home prices and employment levels, and interest rates. If a delinquency goes to claim, any premium collected from the time of delinquency to the time of claim payment is returned to the servicer along with the claim payment.

Under the terms of our master policy, the lender is required to file a claim for primary insurance with us within 60 days after it has acquired title to the underlying property (typically through foreclosure). For several years, the average time it took to receive a claim associated with a delinquency increased significantly from our historical experience of approximately twelve months. This was, in part, due to new loss mitigation protocols established by servicers and to changes in some state foreclosure laws that may have included, for example, a requirement for additional review and/or mediation processes. Prior to the second quarter of 2020, we had begun to experience a decline in the average time it took servicers to process foreclosures, which had reduced the average time to receive a claim associated with new delinquencies that did not cure. All else being equal, the longer the period between delinquency and claim filing, the greater the size of the claim, or “severity.” It is difficult to estimate how long it may take for current and future delinquencies that do not cure to develop into paid claims. In light of the uncertainty caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, including the impact of foreclosure moratoriums and forbearance programs, the average number of missed payments at the time a claim is received has increased.

The majority of loans we insured from 2005 through 2008 (which represent 33% of the loans in the delinquency inventory) are covered by master policy terms that, except under certain circumstances, do not limit the number of years of accumulated interest that an insured may include in a claim. Under our current master policy terms, an insured can include accumulated interest only for the first three years the loan is delinquent.

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Other determinants of claim severity are the amount of the mortgage loan, the coverage percentage on the loan, loss mitigation efforts, and local market conditions. For information about our primary average claim paid, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis – Consolidated Results of Operations – Net Losses and LAE Paid,” in Item 7.

Within 60 days after a claim has been filed and all documents required to be submitted to us have been delivered, we generally have the option to either (1) pay the coverage percentage specified for the insured loan, with the insured retaining title to the underlying property and receiving all proceeds from the eventual sale of the property (we have elected this option for the vast majority of claim payments in the recent past), or (2) pay 100% of the claim amount in exchange for conveyance to us of good and marketable title to the property. After we receive title to a property, we sell it for our own account. If we fail to pay a claim timely, we are subject to additional interest expense.

Claim activity is not evenly spread throughout the coverage period of a book of primary business. Relatively few claims are typically received during the first two years following issuance of coverage on a loan. The highest level of claim activity has typically occurred in the third and fourth years after the year of loan origination. Thereafter, the number of claims received has typically declined at a gradual rate, although the rate of decline can be affected by conditions in the economy, including slowing home price appreciation or home price depreciation. Moreover, when a loan is refinanced, because the new loan replaces, and is a continuation of, an earlier loan, the pattern of claims frequency for that new loan may be different from the typical pattern for other loans. Persistency, the condition of the economy, including unemployment, and other factors can affect the pattern of claim activity. For example, a weak economy can lead to claims from older books of business increasing, continuing at stable levels or experiencing a lower rate of decline. As of December 31, 2021, 78% of our primary RIF was written subsequent to December 31, 2018, 82% of our primary RIF was written subsequent to December 31, 2017, and 86% of our primary RIF was written subsequent to December 31, 2016. See “Our Products and Services – Mortgage Insurance – Primary Insurance In Force and Risk In Force by Policy Year” above.

Primary losses paid for the top 15 jurisdictions (based on 2021 losses paid) and all other jurisdictions for 2021 and 2020 appear in tables found in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis – Consolidated Results of Operations – Losses and expenses – Net Losses and LAE Paid,” in Item 7.

Loss Mitigation. Before paying a claim, generally we review the loan and servicing files to determine the appropriateness of the claim amount. Our insurance policies generally provide that we can reduce or deny a claim if the servicer did not comply with its obligations under our insurance policy, including the requirement to mitigate our loss by performing reasonable loss mitigation efforts or, for example, diligently pursuing a foreclosure or bankruptcy relief in a timely manner. We call such reduction of claims submitted to us “curtailments.” In each of 2021 and 2020, curtailments reduced our average claim paid by approximately 4.4% and 3.6%, respectively. The COVID-19-related foreclosure moratoriums and forbearance plans have decreased our claims paid activity beginning in the second quarter of 2020. It is difficult to predict the level of curtailments once the foreclosure moratoriums and forbearance plans end.

When reviewing the loan file associated with a claim, we may determine that we have the right to rescind coverage on the loan. In our SEC reports, we refer to insurance rescissions and denials of claims as “rescissions” and variations of this term. The circumstances in which we are entitled to rescind coverage narrowed under more restrictive policy terms beginning in 2012. As a result of revised PMIERs requirements, we have revised our master policy effective for new insurance written beginning March 1, 2020. Our ability to rescind insurance coverage has become further limited for insurance we write under the new master policy, potentially resulting in higher losses than would be the case under our previous master policies. In recent years, an immaterial percentage of claims received in a quarter have been resolved by rescissions. We do not expect future rescissions will be a significant portion of the claims we resolve over the next few years.

Our loss reserving methodology incorporates our estimates of future rescissions, curtailments, and reversals of rescissions and curtailments. When we rescind coverage, we return all premiums previously paid to us under the policy and are relieved of our obligation to pay a claim under the policy. A variance between ultimate actual rescission, curtailment or reversal rates and our estimates, as a result of the outcome of litigation, settlements or other factors, could materially affect our losses.

When the insured disputes our right to rescind coverage or curtail a claim, we generally engage in discussions in an attempt to settle the dispute. If we are unable to reach a settlement, the outcome of a dispute ultimately may be determined by legal proceedings. Under ASC 450-20, until a liability associated with settlement discussions or legal proceedings becomes probable and can be reasonably estimated, we consider our claim payment or rescission resolved for financial reporting purposes and do not accrue an estimated loss. When we determine that a loss is probable and can be reasonably estimated, we record our best estimate of our probable loss.

We are currently involved in discussions and/or proceedings with insureds with respect to our claims paying practices. Although it is reasonably possible that when these matters are resolved we will not prevail in all cases, we are unable to make a reasonable estimate or range of estimates of the potential liability. We estimate the maximum exposure associated with matters where a loss is reasonably possible to be approximately $27 million. This estimate of maximum exposure is based upon currently available information; is subject to significant judgment, numerous assumptions and known and unknown uncertainties;

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will include an amount for matters for which we have recorded a probable loss until such matters are concluded; will include different matters from time to time; and does not include interest or consequential or exemplary damages.

Loss Reserves. A significant period of time typically elapses between the time when a borrower becomes delinquent on a mortgage payment, which is the event triggering a potential future claim payment by us, the reporting of the delinquency to us, the acquisition of the property by the lender (typically through foreclosure) or the sale of the property, and the eventual payment of the claim related to the uncured delinquency or a rescission. To recognize the estimated liability for losses related to outstanding reported delinquencies, we establish loss reserves by estimating the number of loans in our delinquency inventory that will result in a claim payment, which is referred to as the claim rate, and further estimating the amount of the claim payment, which is referred to as claim severity. Our loss reserve estimates are established primarily based upon historical experience, including rescission and curtailment activity. In accordance with GAAP for the mortgage insurance industry, we generally do not establish case reserves for future claims on insured loans that are not currently delinquent.

We also establish reserves to provide for the estimated costs of settling claims, general expenses of administering the claims settlement process, legal fees and other fees (“loss adjustment expenses”), and for losses and loss adjustment expenses from delinquencies that have occurred, but have not yet been reported to us (IBNR).

Our reserving process bases our estimates of future events on our past experience. For further information about our loss reserving methodology, refer to “Management’s Discussion and Analysis – Critical Accounting Estimates,” in Item 7. Estimation of loss reserves is inherently judgmental and conditions that have affected the development of the loss reserves in the past may not necessarily affect development patterns in the future, in either a similar manner or to a similar degree. For further information, see our risk factors in Item 1A, including the ones titled “Because we establish loss reserves only upon a loan delinquency rather than based on estimates of our ultimate losses on risk in force, losses may have a disproportionate adverse effect on our earnings in certain periods,” and “Because loss reserve estimates are subject to uncertainties, paid claims may be substantially different than our loss reserves.”

Our losses incurred were $64.6 million in 2021, compared to $364.8 million and $118.6 million in 2020 and 2019, respectively. Our losses incurred in 2020 were above the levels of the other years shown as a result of losses stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic. For information about losses incurred from 2019 to 2021, including the amounts of losses incurred that are associated with delinquency notices received in the reporting year compared to losses incurred associated with delinquency notices received in prior years, see Note 8 – "Loss Reserves" to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8.
D. Reinsurance Agreements
We have in place quota share reinsurance ("QSR") and excess of loss reinsurance ("XOL") transactions providing various amounts of coverage on 92% of our risk in force as of December 31, 2021. These transactions allow us to better manage our risk profile and because they reduce the amount of capital we are required to
hold to comply with insurance regulatory requirements and the requirements of the GSEs' PMIERs, they provide a source of capital relief.

Quota Share Transactions. At December 31, 2021 and 2020, approximately 78% and 76%, respectively, of our IIF was subject to quota share reinsurance ("QSR") transactions. In 2021 and 2020, approximately 82% and 74%, respectively, of our NIW was subject to QSR transactions.
Our QSR transactions are with unaffiliated reinsurers and cover a percentage of most of our insurance written from 2013 through 2016 and 2019 through 2022, and a smaller percentage of our insurance written prior to 2013 and from 2023 through 2025. The weighted average coverage percentage of our QSR transactions was 30%, based on risk in force as of December 31, 2021.

The structure of the QSR transactions is a quota share of various percentages of the policies covered, with a ceding commission and a profit commission. Generally, under the transactions, we will receive an annual profit commission provided the annual loss ratio on the loans covered under the transactions remains below various percentages, depending upon the transaction.

Excess of Loss Transactions. Our XOL transactions were entered into with special purpose insurers that issued notes linked to the reinsurance coverage ("Insurance Linked Notes" or "ILNs"). Our XOL transactions provide XOL reinsurance coverage for a portion of the risk associated with certain mortgage insurance policies having insurance coverage in force dates from July 1, 2016 through March 31, 2019 and January 1, 2020 through May 28, 2021, all dates inclusive.

For the reinsurance coverage periods, we retain the first layer of the respective aggregate losses, and the special purpose insurer will then provide second layer coverage up to the outstanding reinsurance coverage amount. We retain losses in excess of the outstanding reinsurance coverage amount. The aggregate XOL reinsurance coverage decreases over a period of either 10 of 12.5 years, depending on the transaction, subject to certain conditions, as the underlying covered mortgages amortize or are repaid, or mortgage insurance losses are paid. The special purpose insurers financed the coverages with the proceeds of the ILNs in an aggregate amount equal to the initial reinsurance coverage amounts. The ILNs are non-recourse to any of our assets. The proceeds of the ILNs, which were deposited into reinsurance trusts for our benefit, will be the source of reinsurance claim payments to us and principal repayments on the ILNs.
Although reinsuring against possible loan losses does not discharge us from liability to a policyholder, it reduces the amount of capital we are required to retain against potential future losses for PMIERs, rating agency and insurance regulatory purposes. The calculated credit for XOL reinsurance transactions under PMIERs is generally based on the PMIERs requirement of the covered loans and the attachment and detachment point of the coverage, all of which fluctuate over time. PMIERs credit is generally not given for the reinsured risk above the PMIERs requirement. The GSEs have discretion to further limit reinsurance credit under the PMIERs. The total credit for risk ceded under our reinsurance transactions is subject to periodic review by the GSEs.


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For further information about our reinsurance agreements, including the Company's early termination rights, see Note 9 – “Reinsurance,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8, and our risk factor titled "Reinsurance may not always be available or affordable" in Item 1A.

E. Investment Portfolio
POLICY AND STRATEGY
At December 31, 2021, the fair value of our investment portfolio was approximately $6.6 billion. In addition, at December 31, 2021, our total assets included approximately $305 million of cash and cash equivalents. At December 31, 2021, approximately $663 million of investments and cash and cash equivalents was held by our parent company, and the remainder was held by our subsidiaries, primarily MGIC.

As of December 31, 2021, approximately 96% of our investment portfolio (excluding cash and cash equivalents) was managed by two external investment managers, although we maintain overall control of investment policy and strategy. We maintain direct management of the remainder of our investment portfolio. Unless otherwise indicated, the remainder of the discussion regarding our investment portfolio refers to our investment portfolio only and not to cash and cash equivalents.

The investment policy of our operating companies (primarily MGIC) emphasizes preservation of PMIERs assets, limiting portfolio volatility and maximizing total return with an emphasis on yield (subject to the other objectives). Our holding company investment policy emphasizes providing liquidity with minimal realized losses through holding high credit quality, low volatility assets. Consequently, our investment portfolio consists almost entirely of high-quality, investment grade, fixed income securities. Our investment portfolio strategy considers tax efficiency. The mix of tax-exempt municipal securities in our investment portfolio will be dependent upon their value, relative to taxable equivalent securities, determined in part by federal statutory tax rates. Our investment policies and strategies are subject to change depending upon regulatory, economic and market conditions and our existing or anticipated financial condition and operating requirements.

Our investment policies in effect at December 31, 2021 limit investments in the securities of a single issuer, other than the U.S. government, and generally limit the purchase of fixed income securities to those that are rated investment grade by at least one rating agency. They also limit the amount of investment in foreign governments and foreign domiciled securities and in any individual foreign country. In addition, the guidelines require the portfolio to carry a weighted average credit quality of at least an "A" rating.

The aggregate market value of the holdings of a single obligor, or type of investment, as applicable, is limited to:
U.S. government and GNMA securities No limit
Pre-refunded municipals escrowed in Treasury securitiesNo limit
Individual U.S. government agencies(1)
10% of portfolio market value
Individual securities rated “AAA” or “AA” (2)
3% of portfolio market value
Individual securities rated “BBB” or “A” (2)
2% of portfolio market value
Foreign governments & foreign domiciled securities (in total) (3)
25% of portfolio market value
(1)As used with respect to our investment portfolio, U.S. government agencies include all GSEs and Federal Home Loan Banks.
(2)For the holding company, individual securities with a rating of "AA" or "AAA" may represent a maximum 10% of the portfolio market value and individual securities with a rating of "BBB" or "A" may represent a maximum 5%.
(3)For the holding company, there is no maximum aggregate limit for foreign government or foreign domiciled securities.

For information about the credit ratings of securities in our investment portfolio, see "Balance Sheet Review" in Item 7.

Investment Operations
At December 31, 2021, the sectors represented in our investment portfolio were as shown in the table below:
Investment portfolio - sectors
Percentage of Portfolio’s Fair Value
1.  Corporate42%
2.  Tax-Exempt Municipals16%
3.  Taxable Municipals22%
4.  Asset-Backed13%
5.  U.S. government and agency debt
2%
6. GNMA and other agency mortgage-backed securities
5%
100%

We had no derivative financial instruments in our investment portfolio. Securities with stated maturities due within up to one year, after one year and up to five years, after five years and up to ten years, and after ten years, represented 5%, 27%, 28% and 23%, respectively, of the total fair value of our fixed income investment securities. Asset-backed and mortgage-backed securities are not included in these maturity categories as the expected maturities may be different from the stated maturities depending upon the periodic payments during the life of the security. Asset-backed securities represent 13% of the investment portfolio (CLOs represent 6%, CMBS represent 5% and other asset-backed securities represent 2%). GNMA and other agency mortgage-backed securities represent 5% of the investment portfolio. Our pre-tax yield was 2.5%, 2.6%, and 3.1% for 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively, and our after-tax yield was 2.1%, 2.1%, and 2.5% for 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively.


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Our ten largest holdings at December 31, 2021 appear in the table below:
Investment portfolio - Ten largest holdings
Fair Value
(In thousands)
1 New York St Dorm Auth Rev$86,737 
2 JP Morgan Chase59,697 
3 Bank of America Corp55,162 
4 Citigroup Inc49,246 
5 Morgan Stanley45,346 
6 Chicago Transit Authority43,152 
7 Pennsylvania St Turnpike Comm42,684 
8 Athene Global Funding40,081 
9 City of Bridgeport CT37,058 
10 Anaheim CA Public Fdng Auth34,159 
$493,322 

Note: This table excludes securities issued by the U.S. government or U.S. government agencies.  

For further information concerning investment operations, see Note 5 – “Investments,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8.

F. Regulation
Direct Regulation
We are subject to comprehensive, detailed regulation by state insurance departments. These regulations are principally designed for the protection of our insured policyholders, rather than for the benefit of investors. Although their scope varies, state insurance laws generally grant broad supervisory powers to agencies or officials to examine insurance companies and enforce rules or exercise discretion affecting almost every significant aspect of the insurance business.

In general, regulation of our subsidiaries’ businesses relates to:
minimum capital levels and adequacy ratios;
requirements regarding contingency reserves;
premium rates and discrimination in pricing;
licenses to transact businesses;
policy forms;
insurable loans;
annual and other reports on financial condition;
the basis upon which assets and liabilities must be stated;
reinsurance requirements;
limitations on the types of investment instruments which may be held in an investment portfolio;
privacy;
deposits of securities;
transactions among affiliates;
restrictions on transactions that have the effect of inducing lenders to place business with the insurer;
cybersecurity;
limits on dividends payable (for a description of limits on dividends payable to us from MGIC, see Note 14 – “Statutory Information,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8);
suitability of officers and directors; and
claims handling.

Future regulation is expected to address the use of algorithms, artificial intelligence and data and analytics to determine pricing and for other purposes.
Wisconsin, our domiciliary state, has adopted the Risk Management and Own Risk and Solvency Assessment Act, which requires, among other things, that we conduct an Own Risk and Solvency Assessment ("ORSA"), at least annually, to assess the material risks associated with our business and our current and estimated projected future solvency position; and maintain a risk management framework to assess, monitor, manage and report on material risks. Wisconsin has also adopted the annual enterprise risk reporting and "Corporate Governance Disclosure" requirements of the NAIC Model Act.

The insurance laws of 16 jurisdictions, including Wisconsin, our domiciliary state, require a mortgage insurer to maintain a minimum amount of statutory capital relative to the RIF (or a similar measure) in order for the mortgage insurer to continue to write new business. We refer to these requirements as the “State Capital Requirements.” While they vary among jurisdictions, currently the most common State Capital Requirements allow for a maximum risk-to-capital ratio of 25 to 1. Wisconsin does not regulate capital by using a risk-to-capital measure but instead requires a minimum policyholder position. MGIC's “policyholder position” includes its net worth or surplus and its contingency reserve.

At December 31, 2021, MGIC’s risk-to-capital ratio was 9.5 to 1, below the maximum allowed by the jurisdictions with State Capital Requirements, and its policyholder position was $3.4 billion above the required MPP of $1.9 billion.

The NAIC previously announced plans to revise the minimum capital and surplus requirements for mortgage insurers that are provided for in its Mortgage Guaranty Insurance Model Act. In December 2019, a working group of state regulators released an exposure draft of a revised Mortgage Guaranty Insurance Model Act and a risk-based capital framework to establish capital requirements for mortgage insurers, although no date has been established by which the NAIC must propose revisions to the capital requirements. See our risk factors “We may not continue to meet the GSEs’ mortgage insurer eligibility requirements and our returns may decrease as we are required to maintain significantly more capital in order to maintain our eligibility” and “State Capital requirements may prevent us from continuing to write new insurance on an uninterrupted basis” in Item 1A, for information about regulations governing our capital adequacy and our expectations regarding our future capital position. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis – Liquidity and Capital Resources – Capital Adequacy" in Item 7 for information about our current capital position.

We are required to establish statutory accounting contingency loss reserves in an amount equal to 50% of earned premiums. These amounts cannot be withdrawn for a period of 10 years, except as permitted by insurance regulations. With regulatory

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approval, a mortgage insurance company may make early withdrawals from the contingency reserve when incurred losses exceed 35% of net premiums earned in a calendar year. Although MGIC holds assets in excess of its minimum statutory capital requirements and its PMIERs financial requirements, the ability of MGIC to pay dividends is restricted by insurance regulation. In general, dividends in excess of prescribed limits are deemed “extraordinary” and may not be paid if disapproved by the OCI. The level of ordinary dividends that may be paid without OCI approval is determined on an annual basis. A dividend is extraordinary when the proposed dividend amount, plus dividends paid in the twelve months preceding the dividend payment date exceed the ordinary dividend level. At December 31, 2021 MGIC could pay $122 million of ordinary dividends without OCI approval, before taking into consideration dividends paid in the preceding twelve months. In 2021, MGIC paid $400 million in dividends of cash and investments to the holding company. For further information, see Note 14 – “Statutory Information,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8.

Mortgage insurance premium rates are subject to state regulation to protect policyholders against the adverse effects of excessive, inadequate or unfairly discriminatory rates and to encourage competition in the insurance marketplace. Any increase in premium rates must be justified, generally on the basis of the insurer’s loss experience, expenses and future trend analysis. The general mortgage default experience may also be considered. Premium rates are subject to review and challenge by state regulators.

Mortgage insurers are generally single-line companies, restricted to writing residential mortgage insurance business only. Although we, as an insurance holding company, are prohibited from engaging in certain transactions with MGIC or our other insurance subsidiaries without submission to and, in some instances, prior approval by applicable insurance departments, we are not subject to insurance company regulation on our non-insurance businesses.

Wisconsin’s insurance regulations generally provide that no person may acquire control of us unless the transaction in which control is acquired has been approved by the OCI. The regulations provide for a rebuttable presumption of control when a person owns or has the right to vote more than 10% of the voting securities. In addition, the insurance regulations of other states in which MGIC is licensed require notification to the state’s insurance department a specified time before a person acquires control of us. If regulators in these states disapprove the change of control, our licenses to conduct business in the disapproving states could be terminated. For further information about regulatory proceedings applicable to us and our industry, see “We are subject to comprehensive regulation and other requirements, which we may fail to satisfy” in Item 1A.

The CFPB’s rules implementing laws that require mortgage lenders to make ability-to-pay determinations prior to extending credit affect the characteristics of loans being originated and the volume of loans available to be insured. We are uncertain whether the CFPB will issue any other rules or regulations that affect our business. Such rules and regulations could have a material adverse effect on us.

As the most significant purchasers and sellers of conventional mortgage loans and beneficiaries of private mortgage insurance, Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae impose financial and other
requirements on private mortgage insurers in order for them to be eligible to insure loans sold to the GSEs (these requirements are referred to as the "PMIERs", as discussed above). These requirements are subject to change from time to time. Based on our interpretation of the financial requirements of the PMIERs, as of December 31, 2021, MGIC’s Available Assets totaled $5.7 billion, or $2.2 billion in excess of its Minimum Required Assets. MGIC is in compliance with the requirements of the PMIERs and eligible to insure loans purchased by the GSEs. If MGIC ceases to be eligible to insure loans purchased by one or both of the GSEs, it would significantly reduce the volume of our new business writings. For information about matters that could negatively affect our compliance with the PMIERs, see our risk factor titled “We may not continue to meet the GSEs’ mortgage insurer eligibility requirements and our returns may decrease as we are required to maintain significantly more capital in order to maintain our eligibility” in Item 1A.

The FHFA has been the conservator of the GSEs since 2008 and has the authority to control and direct their operations. The increased role that the federal government has assumed in the residential housing finance system through the GSE conservatorship may increase the likelihood that the business practices of the GSEs change, including through administrative action, in ways that have a material adverse effect on us and that the charters of the GSEs are changed by new federal legislation. For more information about the business practices of the GSEs that impact our business, see our risk factor titled "Changes in the business practices of the GSEs, federal legislation that changes their charters or a restructuring of the GSEs could reduce our revenues or increase our losses" in Item 1A

Indirect Regulation
We are also indirectly, but significantly, impacted by regulations affecting purchasers of mortgage loans, such as Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, and regulations affecting governmental insurers, such as the FHA and the VA, and lenders. Private mortgage insurers, including MGIC, are highly dependent upon federal housing legislation and other laws and regulations to the extent they affect the demand for private mortgage insurance and the housing market generally. From time to time, those laws and regulations have been amended in ways that affect competition from government agencies. Proposals are discussed from time to time by Congress and certain federal agencies to reform or modify the FHA and the Government National Mortgage Association, which securitizes mortgages insured by the FHA.

Mortgage insurance generally may be considered to be a “settlement service” for purposes of RESPA under applicable regulations. Subject to certain exceptions, in general, RESPA prohibits any person from giving or receiving any “thing of value” pursuant to an agreement or understanding to refer settlement services.

HOPA provides for the automatic termination, or cancellation upon a borrower’s request, of private mortgage insurance upon satisfaction of certain conditions. For more information, see "Our Products and Services" in Item 1.B.

FCRA imposes restrictions on the permissible use of credit report information. FCRA has been interpreted by some Federal Trade Commission staff and federal courts to require mortgage insurance companies to provide “adverse action” notices to consumers in the event an application for mortgage insurance is

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declined or offered at less than the best available rate for the loan program applied for on the basis of a review of the consumer’s credit.

The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the Federal Reserve Board, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation have uniform guidelines on real estate lending by insured lending institutions under their supervision. The guidelines specify that a residential mortgage loan originated with a loan-to-value ratio of 90% or greater should have appropriate credit enhancement in the form of mortgage insurance or readily marketable collateral, although no depth of coverage percentage is specified in the guidelines.

Lenders are subject to various laws, including the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Community Reinvestment Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, TILA, HOPA, the Secure and Fair Enforcement for Mortgage Licensing Act, FCRA, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, and the Fair Housing Act, and Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are subject to various laws, including laws relating to government sponsored enterprises, which may impose obligations or create incentives for increased lending to low and moderate income persons, or in targeted areas.

There can be no assurance that other federal laws and regulations affecting these institutions and entities will not change, or that new legislation or regulations will not be adopted which will adversely affect the private mortgage insurance industry.

G. Human Capital
In 1957, MGIC’s founder Max Karl pioneered the modern form of private mortgage insurance in an effort to make homeownership more accessible. In the 65 years since, we’ve helped 13.5 million people attain homeownership sooner. Every day, we ground our efforts in the knowledge that our products help homeowners and their families and contribute to stronger communities. The importance of community is something that affects all that we do: including how we think about the experience and environment we strive to create for our co-workers and how we can impact the world around us.
In 2021, a significant focus was placed on the need for connection, including strengthening communication within our teams, prioritizing co-worker wellness and opportunity, breaking down barriers and giving back locally. Our people-focused work efforts were numerous, but they all linked back to the principles on which we were founded.
The following table provides selected demographic information for our workforce as of December 31, 2021.
Demographics (as of December 31, 2021)
Number of Co-Workers711 *
Average Tenure14 years
Percent Female59%
Percent Racial / Ethnic Minorities16%
Turnover Rate9%
Average Age50
*The number of co-workers does not include “on-call” co-workers. The number of “on-call” co-workers can vary substantially, primarily as a result of changes in demand for contract underwriting services. In recent years, the number of “on-call” co-workers has ranged from fewer than 25 to more than 110.

COVID-19 Response & Workplace Evolution
The health and safety of our co-workers is very important to us, as is providing them with the resources and support they need to perform effectively. Our leadership regularly communicates with co-workers, and we have deployed new methods since the onset of COVID-19, including a new MGIC intranet, to support an even more connected co-worker experience. Leadership and co-workers at all levels have found value in the workplace flexibility initiated by COVID-19, so we have adopted a hybrid work model as our new way of operating. Accordingly, we have invested significant time and resources on planning, training, and updating our technology to prepare our teams to work together in a new way, while attempting to maintain equity, productivity and support, regardless of where work is performed.
Diversity, Equity & Inclusion
MGIC strives to create an employee experience that attracts, develops, engages and retains strong talent through diverse teams and inclusive collaboration. Notable expansions of our diversity, equity and inclusion work in 2021 included:
Creating a dedicated Community and Inclusion Advisor role
Establishing a relationship with All-In-Milwaukee, a coalition of education partners helping limited income, high potential students graduate college
Signing the CEO Action Pledge for Diversity and Inclusion
Continuing participation in the Metropolitan Milwaukee Association of Commerce “Region of Choice” initiative to increase Black and Brown representation in management roles
Supporting IDEAL (Inclusion and Diversity Encourage Authentic Leadership), our business resource group, which involved 47% of our home-office co-workers in numerous speaker and networking events in 2021
Total Rewards and Talent Practices
Our total rewards program is designed to provide a competitive package of benefits and compensation elements that recognize the unique needs of our workforce and their families. All full-time MGIC co-workers are eligible to participate in our health program, which is calibrated toward well-being through our popular Health Rewards program in addition to a comprehensive medical, dental and vision plan. We also recognize financial health as part of well-being, and so currently provide retirement programs, including both a defined benefit pension plan and a 401(k)

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defined contribution plan with company match and discretionary annual profit-sharing contributions.
Our talent practices reflect a commitment to creating a positive co-worker experience and investing in development and career growth. In 2021, we implemented targeted tools and trainings to further hone the skill sets most critical to the future of work. For managers, this meant an emphasis on leading effectively in a hybrid environment. For our technical roles, we invested in upskilling and certifications. Our co-workers have access to self-paced LinkedIn Learning courses, which allows them to pursue individual career goals when and how it best fit their schedule. We also offered virtual workshops and curated third-party resources to meet the unique needs of specific groups and individuals. Beyond development, we enhanced several stages of the co-worker lifecycle, particularly onboarding (updated to increase clarity and equity across locations) and performance.
Co-Worker Sentiment
To ensure we are providing a rich experience for our co-workers, MGIC measures the sentiment of the workforce through an annual engagement survey. In 2021, we saw an 86% participation rate. We also administered the survey using a new survey platform, designed to increase leader visibility to team results and to focus attention on action planning. Based on the information and insights gathered from the survey, we have identified areas of strength/opportunity and have shared them with our Board of Directors and executive leadership.
Community Involvement
As a company whose very business is built on homeownership, the value of strong and secure communities is core to everything we do. Our commitment to community has a strong philanthropy and volunteering component, and in 2021 included:
Formalizing our volunteering and community giving programs under the banner Giving Back, Together
Providing a half day of paid volunteer time off for every co-worker annually
Showcasing community partners via lunch and learns during National Volunteer Week
Participating in United Way’s Loaned Executive program
Establishing a relationship with All-In-Milwaukee, a coalition of education partners helping limited income, high potential students graduate college
Joining the University of Wisconsin — Milwaukee’s Industry Connect program, which gives business students hands-on project experience in applicable business settings



H. Website Access
We make available, free of charge, our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file these materials with the SEC. The reports and amendments are accessible at the “Reports & Filings” link on our website (http://mtg.mgic.com). The inclusion of our website address in this report is an inactive textual reference only and is not intended to include or incorporate by reference the information on our website into this report.

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PART I
Item 1A. Risk Factors
As used below, “we,” “our” and “us” refer to MGIC Investment Corporation’s consolidated operations or to MGIC Investment Corporation, as the context requires; and “MGIC” refers to Mortgage Guaranty Insurance Corporation.

Our actual results could be affected by the risk factors below. These risk factors are an integral part of this annual report. These risk factors may also cause actual results to differ materially from the results contemplated by forward looking statements that we may make. Forward looking statements consist of statements which relate to matters other than historical fact, including matters that inherently refer to future events. Among others, statements that include words such as “believe,” “anticipate,” “will” or “expect,” or words of similar import, are forward looking statements. We are not undertaking any obligation to update any forward looking statements or other statements we may make even though these statements may be affected by events or circumstances occurring after the forward looking statements or other statements were made. No reader of this annual report should rely on these statements being current at any time other than the time at which this annual report was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Risk Factors Relating to the COVID-19 Pandemic
The COVID-19 pandemic may materially impact our future financial results, business, liquidity and/or financial condition.
The COVID-19 pandemic had a material impact on our 2020 financial results. While uncertain, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company’s future financial results, business, liquidity and/or financial condition may also be material. The magnitude of the impact will be influenced by various factors, including the length and severity of the pandemic in the United States, efforts to reduce the transmission of COVID-19, the level of unemployment, and the impact of government initiatives and actions taken by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac (the "GSEs") (including mortgage forbearance and modification programs) to mitigate the economic harm caused by COVID-19.

The COVID-19 pandemic may impact our business in various ways, including the following, each of which is described in more detail in the remainder of these risk factors:
Our incurred losses will increase if the number of delinquencies increases. We establish reserves for insurance losses when delinquency notices are received on loans that are two or more payments past due and for loans we estimate are delinquent prior to the close of the accounting period but for which delinquency notices have not yet been reported to us (which is included in what we refer to as “IBNR”). In addition, our current estimates of the number of delinquencies for which we will receive claims, and the amount, or severity, of each claim, may increase.
We may be required to maintain more capital under the private mortgage insurer eligibility requirements ("PMIERs") of the GSEs, which generally require more capital to be held for delinquent loans than for performing loans and require more capital to be held as the number of payments missed on delinquent loans increases.
If the number of delinquencies increases, the number of claims we must pay over time will generally increase.
Our access to the reinsurance and capital markets may be limited and the terms under which we are able to access such markets may be less attractive than the terms of our previous transactions.
Risk Factors Relating to the Mortgage Insurance Industry and its Regulation
Downturns in the domestic economy or declines in home prices may result in more homeowners defaulting and our losses increasing, with a corresponding decrease in our returns.
Losses result from events that reduce a borrower’s ability or willingness to make mortgage payments, such as unemployment, health issues, family status, and whether the mortgage balance exceeds the value of the home, net of sales-related expenses. A deterioration in economic conditions, including an increase in unemployment, generally increases the likelihood that borrowers will not have sufficient income to pay their mortgages and can also adversely affect home prices, which in turn can influence the willingness of borrowers with sufficient resources to make mortgage payments when the mortgage balance exceeds the value of the home, net of sales-related expenses.
The seasonally-adjusted Purchase-Only U.S. Home Price Index of the Federal Housing Finance Agency (the “FHFA”), which is based on single-family properties whose mortgages have been purchased or securitized by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, indicates that home prices increased by 15.9% in the first eleven months of 2021, after increasing by 11.5%, 5.4%, 5.7% and 6.3% in 2020, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The price-to-income ratio in some markets exceeds its historical average, in part as a result of recent home price appreciation outpacing increases in income. Home prices may decline even absent a deterioration in economic conditions due to declines in demand for homes, which in turn may result from changes in buyers’ perceptions of the potential for future appreciation, restrictions on and the cost of mortgage credit due to more stringent underwriting standards, higher interest rates, changes to the tax deductibility of mortgage interest, decreases in the rate of household formations, or other factors.
High levels of unemployment may result in an increasing number of loan delinquencies and an increasing number of insurance claims; however, the increases are difficult to predict given the uncertainty in the current market environment, including uncertainty about the length and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic; efforts to reduce the transmission of COVID-19; effects of forbearance programs enacted by the GSEs, various states and municipalities; and effects of past and future government stimulus programs.
Forbearance for federally-insured mortgages (including those delivered to or purchased by the GSEs) allows for mortgage payments to be suspended for up to 18 months: an initial forbearance period of up to six months; if requested by the borrower following contact by the servicer, an extension of up to

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six months; and, for loans in a COVID-19 forbearance plan as of February 28, 2021, an additional extension of up to six months, subject to certain limits. In certain circumstances, the servicer will be unable to contact the borrower regarding an extension of the forbearance plan and it will expire without being extended, or further extended, as applicable. A delinquent loan for which the borrower was unable to be contacted and that is not in a forbearance plan may be more likely to result in a claim than a delinquent loan in a forbearance plan.
Historically, forbearance plans have reduced the incidence of our losses on affected loans. However, given the uncertainty surrounding the long-term economic impact of COVID-19, it is difficult to predict the ultimate effect of COVID-19 related forbearances on our loss incidence. Of the 46,684 loans in our delinquency inventory as of June 30, 2020 that were reported to us as in forbearance, 85% are no longer in the default inventory as of December 31, 2021; 4% are still in the delinquency inventory and reported to us as in forbearance; and 11% are still in the delinquency inventory but no longer reported to us as in forbearance. At December 31, 2021, 11,137, or 33%, of the loans in our delinquency inventory were reported to us as in forbearance and of those, 40%, 12%, 12% and 10% have reached the fifteen-month, twelve-month, nine-month and six-month anniversaries of their forbearance plans, respectively. Whether a loan delinquency will cure, including through modification, when forbearance ends will depend on the economic circumstances of the borrower at that time. The GSEs have introduced specific loan workout options for borrowers whose COVID-19 forbearance plans end. If a servicer is unable to contact a borrower to determine a loan workout option, the forbearance plan will end and the loan may remain delinquent. The severity of losses associated with delinquencies that do not cure will depend on economic conditions at that time, including home prices.
Foreclosures on mortgages purchased or securitized by the GSEs were suspended through July 31, 2021. Under a CFPB rule that was effective through December 31, 2021, with limited exceptions, servicers were required to ensure that at least one temporary procedural safeguard had been met before referring 120-day delinquent loans for foreclosure. With the expiration of the CFPB rule, it is likely that foreclosures and claims will increase.
We may not continue to meet the GSEs’ private mortgage insurer eligibility requirements and our returns may decrease if we are required to maintain more capital in order to maintain our eligibility.
We must comply with a GSE's PMIERs to be eligible to insure loans delivered to or purchased by that GSE. The PMIERs include financial requirements, as well as business, quality control and certain transaction approval requirements. The financial requirements of the PMIERs require a mortgage insurer’s “Available Assets” (generally only the most liquid assets of an insurer) to equal or exceed its “Minimum Required Assets” (which are generally based on an insurer’s book of risk in force and calculated from tables of factors with several risk dimensions, reduced for credit given for risk ceded under reinsurance agreements).
Based on our interpretation of the PMIERs, as of December 31, 2021, MGIC’s Available Assets totaled $5.7 billion, or $2.2 billion in excess of its Minimum Required Assets. MGIC is in compliance
with the PMIERs and eligible to insure loans purchased by the GSEs. Our "Minimum Required Assets" reflect a credit for risk ceded under our reinsurance transactions, which are discussed in our risk factor titled "The mix of business we write affects our Minimum Required Assets under the PMIERs, our premium yields and the likelihood of losses occurring." The calculated credit for excess of loss reinsurance transactions under PMIERs is generally based on the PMIERs requirement of the covered loans and the attachment and detachment points of the coverage, all of which fluctuate over time. PMIERs credit is generally not given for the reinsured risk above the PMIERs requirement. The GSEs have discretion to further limit reinsurance credit under the PMIERs. Refer to our Quarterly Supplements, which are posted on our investor website, for the calculated PMIERs credit for each of our excess of loss reinsurance transactions. We are not including the information contained in those Supplements or on our investor website as a part of, or incorporating it by reference into, this Report. There is a risk we will not receive our current level of credit in future periods for ceded risk. In addition, we may not receive the same level of credit under future reinsurance transactions that we receive under existing transactions. If MGIC is not allowed certain levels of credit under the PMIERs, under certain circumstances, MGIC may terminate the reinsurance transactions without penalty.
The PMIERs generally require us to hold significantly more Minimum Required Assets for delinquent loans than for performing loans and the Minimum Required Assets required to be held increases as the number of payments missed on a delinquent loan increases. If the number of loan delinquencies caused by the COVID-19 pandemic or other factors increases, it may cause our Minimum Required Assets to exceed our Available Assets. We are unable to predict the ultimate number of loans that will become delinquent.
If our Available Assets fall below our Minimum Required Assets, we would not be in compliance with the PMIERs. The PMIERs provide a list of remediation actions for a mortgage insurer's non-compliance, with additional actions possible in the GSEs' discretion. At the extreme, the GSEs may suspend or terminate our eligibility to insure loans purchased by them. Such suspension or termination would significantly reduce the volume of our new insurance written ("NIW"); the substantial majority of which is for loans delivered to or purchased by the GSEs. In addition to the increase in Minimum Required Assets associated with delinquent loans, factors that may negatively impact MGIC’s ability to continue to comply with the financial requirements of the PMIERs include the following:
The GSEs may make the PMIERs more onerous in the future. The PMIERs provide that the factors that determine Minimum Required Assets will be updated periodically, or as needed if there is a significant change in macroeconomic conditions or loan performance. We do not anticipate that the regular periodic updates will occur more frequently than once every two years. The PMIERs state that the GSEs will provide notice 180 days prior to the effective date of updates to the factors; however, the GSEs may amend the PMIERs at any time, including by imposing restrictions specific to our company.
There may be future implications for PMIERs as a result of changes to the regulatory capital requirements for the GSEs. In 2020, the FHFA adopted a rule containing a capital framework for the GSEs that generally would have become

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effective on the date of termination of the FHFA’s conservatorship of the applicable GSE. In September 2021, the FHFA issued a notice of proposed rule-making that would modify that capital framework. When the final GSE capital requirements have been determined and become effective, they may affect the Minimum Required Assets required to be held by mortgage insurers.
Our future operating results may be negatively impacted by the matters discussed in the rest of these risk factors. Such matters could decrease our revenues, increase our losses or require the use of assets, thereby creating a shortfall in Available Assets.
Should capital be needed by MGIC in the future, capital contributions from our holding company may not be available due to competing demands on holding company resources, including for repayment of debt.
Because we establish loss reserves only upon a loan delinquency rather than based on estimates of our ultimate losses on risk in force, losses may have a disproportionate adverse effect on our earnings in certain periods.
In accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, we establish case reserves for insurance losses and loss adjustment expenses only when delinquency notices are received for insured loans that are two or more payments past due and for loans we estimate are delinquent but for which delinquency notices have not yet been received (which we include in “IBNR”). Losses that may occur from loans that are not delinquent are not reflected in our financial statements, except in the case where a premium deficiency exists. A premium deficiency would be recorded if the present value of expected future losses and expenses exceeds the present value of expected future premiums and already established loss reserves on the applicable loans. As a result, future losses incurred on loans that are not currently delinquent may have a material impact on future results as delinquencies emerge. As of December 31, 2021, we had established case reserves and reported losses incurred for 33,290 loans in our delinquency inventory and our IBNR reserve totaled $27 million. The number of loans in our delinquency inventory may increase from that level as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and our losses incurred may increase. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of delinquencies and our losses incurred will be influenced by various factors, including those discussed in our risk factor titled "The COVID-19 pandemic may materially impact our financial results, business, liquidity and/or financial condition."
Because loss reserve estimates are subject to uncertainties, paid claims may be substantially different than our loss reserves.
When we establish case reserves, we estimate our ultimate loss on delinquent loans by estimating the number of such loans that will result in a claim payment (the "claim rate"), and further estimating the amount of the claim payment (the "claim severity"). Our estimates incorporate anticipated cures, loss mitigation activity, rescissions and curtailments. The establishment of loss reserves is subject to inherent uncertainty and requires judgment by management. Our actual claim payments may be substantially different than our loss reserve estimates. Our estimates could be affected by several factors, including a change in regional or national economic conditions, the impact of past and future
government initiatives and actions taken by the GSEs to mitigate the economic harm caused by the COVID-19 pandemic (including foreclosure moratoriums and mortgage forbearance and modification programs) and efforts to reduce the transmission of COVID-19, and a change in the length of time loans are delinquent before claims are received. All else being equal, the longer a loan is delinquent before a claim is received, the greater the severity. As a result of foreclosure moratoriums and forbearance programs, the average time it takes to receive claims has increased. The change in economic conditions may include changes in unemployment, including prolonged unemployment as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, which may affect the ability of borrowers to make mortgage payments, and changes in home prices, which may affect the willingness of borrowers to make mortgage payments when the value of the home is below the mortgage balance. The economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic may be disproportionately concentrated in certain geographic regions. Information about the geographic dispersion of our insurance in force can be found in our Annual Reports on Form 10-K and our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q. Changes to our claim rate and claim severity estimates could have a material impact on our future results, even in a stable economic environment. Losses incurred generally have followed a seasonal trend in which the second half of the year has weaker credit performance than the first half, with higher new default notice activity and a lower cure rate; however, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic affected this pattern in 2020 and 2021.
The amount of insurance we write could be adversely affected if lenders and investors select alternatives to private mortgage insurance.
Alternatives to private mortgage insurance include:
investors using risk mitigation and credit risk transfer techniques other than private mortgage insurance, or accepting credit risk without credit enhancement,
lenders and other investors holding mortgages in portfolio and self-insuring,
lenders using Federal Housing Administration ("FHA"), U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs ("VA") and other government mortgage insurance programs, and
lenders originating mortgages using piggyback structures to avoid private mortgage insurance, such as a first mortgage with an 80% LTV ratio and a second mortgage with a 10%, 15% or 20% LTV ratio rather than a first mortgage with a 90%, 95% or 100% LTV ratio that has private mortgage insurance.
The GSEs’ charters generally require credit enhancement for a low down payment mortgage loan (a loan in an amount that exceeds 80% of a home’s value) in order for such loan to be eligible for purchase by the GSEs. Private mortgage insurance generally has been purchased by lenders in primary mortgage market transactions to satisfy this credit enhancement requirement. In 2018, the GSEs initiated secondary mortgage market programs with loan level mortgage default coverage provided by various (re)insurers that are not mortgage insurers governed by PMIERs, and that are not selected by the lenders. These programs, which currently account for a small percentage of the low down payment market, compete with traditional private mortgage insurance and, due to differences in policy terms, they may offer

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premium rates that are below prevalent single premium lender-paid mortgage insurance ("LPMI") rates. We participate in these programs from time to time. See our risk factor titled “Changes in the business practices of the GSEs, federal legislation that changes their charters or a restructuring of the GSEs could reduce our revenues or increase our losses” for a discussion of various business practices of the GSEs that may be changed, including through expansion or modification of these programs.
The GSEs (and other investors) have also used other forms of credit enhancement that did not involve traditional private mortgage insurance, such as engaging in credit-linked note transactions executed in the capital markets, or using other forms of debt issuances or securitizations that transfer credit risk directly to other investors, including competitors and an affiliate of MGIC; using other risk mitigation techniques in conjunction with reduced levels of private mortgage insurance coverage; or accepting credit risk without credit enhancement.
The FHA's share of the low down payment residential mortgages that were subject to FHA, VA, USDA or primary private mortgage insurance was 23.9% in the first three quarters of 2021, 23.4% in 2020 and 28.2% in 2019. Beginning in 2012, the FHA’s share has been as low as 23.4% (in 2020) and as high as 42.1% (in 2012). Factors that influence the FHA’s market share include relative rates and fees, underwriting guidelines and loan limits of the FHA, VA, private mortgage insurers and the GSEs; lenders' perceptions of legal risks under FHA versus GSE programs; flexibility for the FHA to establish new products as a result of federal legislation and programs; returns expected to be obtained by lenders for Ginnie Mae securitization of FHA-insured loans compared to those obtained from selling loans to the GSEs for securitization; and differences in policy terms, such as the ability of a borrower to cancel insurance coverage under certain circumstances. The focus of the Presidential Administration on equitable housing finance and sustainable housing opportunities increases the likelihood of a reduction in the FHA’s mortgage insurance premium rates. Such a rate reduction would negatively impact our NIW; however, given the many factors that influence the FHA's market share, it is difficult to predict the impact. In addition, we cannot predict how the factors that affect the FHA’s share of new insurance written will change in the future.
The VA's share of the low down payment residential mortgages that were subject to FHA, VA, USDA or primary private mortgage insurance was 30.9% in the first three quarters of 2021, 30.9% in 2020 and 25.2% in 2019. Beginning in 2012, the VA’s share has been as low as 22.8% (in 2013) and as high as 30.9% (in 2020 and the first three quarters of 2021). We believe that the VA’s market share has generally been elevated in recent years because of an increase in the number of borrowers that are eligible for the VA’s program, which offers 100% LTV ratio loans and charges a one-time funding fee that can be included in the loan amount, and because eligible borrowers have opted to use the VA program when refinancing their mortgages.
Changes in the business practices of the GSEs, federal legislation that changes their charters or a restructuring of the GSEs could reduce our revenues or increase our losses.
The substantial majority of our NIW is for loans purchased by the GSEs; therefore, the business practices of the GSEs greatly impact our business. The GSEs have been requested to submit Equitable Housing Finance Plans to the FHFA. The plans are to
identify and address barriers to sustainable housing opportunities, including the GSEs’ goals and action plans to advance equity in housing finance for the next three years. The action plans, when finalized, may include methods to reduce mortgage costs for historically underserved borrowers, including mortgage insurance costs. The GSEs’ action plans will likely change certain of the GSEs’ business practices and those changes may affect the mortgage insurance industry. The GSEs’ business practices that currently affect the mortgage insurance industry include:
The GSEs' PMIERs, the financial requirements of which are discussed in our risk factor titled “We may not continue to meet the GSEs’ private mortgage insurer eligibility requirements and our returns may decrease if we are required to maintain more capital in order to maintain our eligibility.”
The capital and collateral requirements for participants in the GSEs' alternative forms of credit enhancement discussed in our risk factor titled "The amount of insurance we write could be adversely affected if lenders and investors select alternatives to private mortgage insurance."
The level of private mortgage insurance coverage, subject to the limitations of the GSEs’ charters, when private mortgage insurance is used as the required credit enhancement on low down payment mortgages (the GSEs generally require a level of mortgage insurance coverage that is higher than the level of coverage required by their charters; any change in the required level of coverage will impact our new risk written).
The amount of loan level price adjustments and guaranty fees (which result in higher costs to borrowers) that the GSEs assess on loans that require private mortgage insurance. In January 2022, the FHFA announced targeted increases in the loan level price adjustments for certain high-balance loans and second home mortgages. The GSE capital framework, when finalized, may lead the GSEs to increase their guaranty fees.
Whether the GSEs select or influence the mortgage lender’s selection of the mortgage insurer providing coverage.
The underwriting standards that determine which loans are eligible for purchase by the GSEs, which can affect the quality of the risk insured by the mortgage insurer and the availability of mortgage loans.
The terms on which mortgage insurance coverage can be canceled before reaching the cancellation thresholds established by law and the business practices associated with such cancellations. For more information, see our risk factor titled “Changes in interest rates, house prices or mortgage insurance cancellation requirements may change the length of time that our policies remain in force.”
The programs established by the GSEs intended to avoid or mitigate loss on insured mortgages and the circumstances in which mortgage servicers must implement such programs.
The terms that the GSEs require to be included in mortgage insurance policies for loans that they purchase, including limitations on the rescission rights of mortgage insurers.

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The extent to which the GSEs intervene in mortgage insurers’ claims paying practices, rescission practices or rescission settlement practices with lenders.
The maximum loan limits of the GSEs compared to those of the FHA and other investors.
The benchmarks established by the FHFA for loans to be purchased by the GSEs, which can affect the loans available to be insured. In December 2021, the FHFA established the benchmark levels for 2022-2024 purchases of low-income home mortgages, very low-income home mortgages and low-income refinance mortgages, each of which exceeded the 2021 benchmarks. The FHFA also established two new sub-goals: one targeting minority communities and the other targeting low-income neighborhoods.
The FHFA has been the conservator of the GSEs since 2008 and has the authority to control and direct their operations. The increased role that the federal government has assumed in the residential housing finance system through the GSE conservatorship may increase the likelihood that the business practices of the GSEs change, including through administrative action, in ways that have a material adverse effect on us and that the charters of the GSEs are changed by new federal legislation.
As a result of the 2021 change in the Presidential Administration, the June 2021 appointment of a new Acting Director of the FHFA who has also been nominated to become the full-time Director, and the 2021 U.S. Supreme Court decision that allows the President to remove the FHFA Director at will, it is uncertain what role the GSEs, FHA and private capital, including private mortgage insurance, will play in the residential housing finance system in the future. The timing and impact on our business of any resulting changes is uncertain. Many of the proposed changes would require Congressional action to implement and it is difficult to estimate when Congressional action would be final and how long any associated phase-in period may last.
Reinsurance may not always be available or affordable.
We have in place quota share reinsurance ("QSR") and excess of loss reinsurance ("XOL") transactions providing various amounts of coverage on 78% of our risk in force as of December 31, 2021. As of December 31, 2021, our QSR transactions with unaffiliated reinsurers cover most of our insurance written from 2013 through 2016 and 2019 through 2022, and smaller portions of our insurance written prior to 2013 and from 2023 through 2025. The weighted average coverage percentage of our QSR transactions was 30%, based on risk in force as of December 31, 2021. We elected to terminate our QSR Transactions covering 2017 and 2018 policy years, effective December 31, 2021. Our XOL transactions at December 31, 2021 provided XOL reinsurance coverage for a portion of the risk associated with certain mortgage insurance policies having insurance coverage in force dates from July 1, 2016 through March 31, 2019 and January 1, 2020 through May 28, 2021, all dates inclusive. The XOL transactions were entered into with special purpose insurers that issued notes linked to the reinsurance coverage ("Insurance Linked Notes" or "ILNs"). The reinsurance transactions reduce the tail-risk associated with stress scenarios. As a result, they reduce the capital that we are required to hold to support the risk and they allow us to earn higher returns on our business than we would without them. However, reinsurance may not always be
available to us or available on similar terms, the quota share reinsurance transactions subject us to counterparty credit risk, and the GSEs may change the credit they allow under the PMIERs for risk ceded under our reinsurance transactions. If we are unable to obtain reinsurance for NIW, the capital required to support our NIW will increase and our returns may decrease absent an increase in our premium rates. An increase in our premium rates may lead to a decrease in our NIW.
We are subject to comprehensive regulation and other requirements, which we may fail to satisfy.
We are subject to comprehensive regulation, including by state insurance departments. Many regulations are designed for the protection of our insured policyholders and consumers, rather than for the benefit of investors. Mortgage insurers, including MGIC, have in the past been involved in litigation and regulatory actions related to alleged violations of the anti-referral fee provisions of the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act ("RESPA"), and the notice provisions of the Fair Credit Reporting Act ("FCRA"). While these proceedings in the aggregate did not result in material liability for MGIC, there can be no assurance that the outcome of future proceedings, if any, under these laws would not have a material adverse effect on us. To the extent that we are construed to make independent credit decisions in connection with our contract underwriting activities, we also could be subject to increased regulatory requirements under the Equal Credit Opportunity Act ("ECOA"), FCRA, and other laws. Under relevant laws, examination may also be made of whether a mortgage insurer's underwriting decisions have a disparate impact on persons belonging to a protected class in violation of the law.
Although their scope varies, state insurance laws generally grant broad supervisory powers to agencies or officials to examine insurance companies and enforce rules or exercise discretion affecting almost every significant aspect of the insurance business, including payment for the referral of insurance business, premium rates and discrimination in pricing, and minimum capital requirements. The increased use, by the private mortgage insurance industry, of risk-based pricing systems that establish premium rates based on more attributes than previously considered, and of algorithms, artificial intelligence and data and analytics, may lead to additional regulatory scrutiny of premium rates and of other matters such as discrimination in pricing and underwriting, data privacy and access to insurance. For more information about state capital requirements, see our risk factor titled “State capital requirements may prevent us from continuing to write new insurance on an uninterrupted basis.” For information about regulation of data privacy, see our risk factor titled “We could be adversely affected if personal information on consumers that we maintain is improperly disclosed; our information technology systems are damaged or their operations are interrupted; or our automated processes do not operate as expected.” For more details about the various ways in which our subsidiaries are regulated, see “Business - Regulation” in Item 1.
While we have established policies and procedures to comply with applicable laws and regulations, many such laws and regulations are complex and it is not possible to predict the eventual scope, duration or outcome of any reviews or investigations nor is it possible to predict their effect on us or the mortgage insurance industry.

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If the volume of low down payment home mortgage originations declines, the amount of insurance that we write could decline.
The factors that may affect the volume of low down payment mortgage originations include the health of the U.S. economy, conditions in regional and local economies and the level of consumer confidence; restrictions on mortgage credit due to more stringent underwriting standards, liquidity issues or risk-retention and/or capital requirements affecting lenders; the level of home mortgage interest rates; housing affordability; new and existing housing availability; the rate of household formation, which is influenced, in part, by population and immigration trends; homeownership rates; the rate of home price appreciation, which in times of heavy refinancing can affect whether refinanced loans have LTV ratios that require private mortgage insurance; and government housing policy encouraging loans to first-time homebuyers. A decline in the volume of low down payment home mortgage originations could decrease demand for mortgage insurance and limit our NIW. For other factors that could decrease the demand for mortgage insurance, see our risk factor titled “The amount of insurance we write could be adversely affected if lenders and investors select alternatives to private mortgage insurance.”
State capital requirements may prevent us from continuing to write new insurance on an uninterrupted basis.
The insurance laws of 16 jurisdictions, including Wisconsin, MGIC's domiciliary state, require a mortgage insurer to maintain a minimum amount of statutory capital relative to its risk in force (or a similar measure) in order for the mortgage insurer to continue to write new business. We refer to these requirements as the “State Capital Requirements.” While they vary among jurisdictions, the most common State Capital Requirements allow for a maximum risk-to-capital ratio of 25 to 1. A risk-to-capital ratio will increase if (i) the percentage decrease in capital exceeds the percentage decrease in insured risk, or (ii) the percentage increase in capital is less than the percentage increase in insured risk. Wisconsin does not regulate capital by using a risk-to-capital measure but instead requires a minimum policyholder position (“MPP”). MGIC's “policyholder position” includes its net worth or surplus, and its contingency reserve.
At December 31, 2021 MGIC’s risk-to-capital ratio was 9.5 to 1, below the maximum allowed by the jurisdictions with State Capital Requirements, and its policyholder position was $3.4 billion above the required MPP of $1.9 billion. At December 31, 2021, the risk-to-capital ratio of our combined insurance operations was 9.5 to 1. Our risk-to-capital ratio and MPP reflect full credit for the risk ceded under our quota share reinsurance and excess of loss transactions with unaffiliated reinsurers. It is possible that under the revised State Capital Requirements discussed below, MGIC will not be allowed full credit for the risk ceded under such transactions. If MGIC is not allowed an agreed level of credit under the State Capital Requirements, MGIC may terminate the reinsurance transactions, without penalty.
The NAIC previously announced plans to revise the State Capital Requirements that are provided for in its Mortgage Guaranty Insurance Model Act. In December 2019, a working group of state regulators released an exposure draft of a revised Mortgage Guaranty Insurance Model Act and a risk-based capital framework to establish capital requirements for mortgage insurers, although no date has been established by which the NAIC must propose
revisions to the capital requirements and certain items have not yet been completely addressed by the framework, including the treatment of ceded risk and minimum capital floors.
While MGIC currently meets the State Capital Requirements of Wisconsin and all other jurisdictions, it could be prevented from writing new business in the future in all jurisdictions if it fails to meet the State Capital Requirements of Wisconsin, or it could be prevented from writing new business in a particular jurisdiction if it fails to meet the State Capital Requirements of that jurisdiction, and in each case if MGIC does not obtain a waiver of such requirements. It is possible that regulatory action by one or more jurisdictions, including those that do not have specific State Capital Requirements, may prevent MGIC from continuing to write new insurance in such jurisdictions. If we are unable to write business in a particular jurisdiction, lenders may be unwilling to procure insurance from us anywhere. In addition, a lender’s assessment of the future ability of our insurance operations to meet the State Capital Requirements or the PMIERs may affect its willingness to procure insurance from us. In this regard, see our risk factor titled “Competition or changes in our relationships with our customers could reduce our revenues, reduce our premium yields and/or increase our losses.” A possible future failure by MGIC to meet the State Capital Requirements or the PMIERs will not necessarily mean that MGIC lacks sufficient resources to pay claims on its insurance liabilities. You should read the rest of these risk factors for information about matters that could negatively affect MGIC’s compliance with State Capital Requirements and its claims paying resources, including the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.
We are susceptible to disruptions in the servicing of mortgage loans that we insure and we rely on third-party reporting for information regarding the mortgage loans we insure.
We depend on reliable, consistent third-party servicing of the loans that we insure. An increase in delinquent loans, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, may result in liquidity issues and operational burdens for servicers. When a mortgage loan that is collateral for a mortgage backed security ("MBS") becomes delinquent, the servicer is usually required to continue to pay principal and interest to the MBS investors, generally for four months, even though the servicer is not receiving payments from borrowers. This may cause liquidity issues for especially non-bank servicers (who service approximately 46% of the loans underlying our insurance in force as of December 31, 2021) because they do not have the same sources of liquidity that bank servicers have.
While there has been no disruption in our premium receipts through the end of December 2021, servicers who experience future liquidity issues may be less likely to advance premiums to us on policies covering delinquent loans or to remit premiums on policies covering loans that are not delinquent. Our policies allow us to cancel coverage on loans that are not delinquent if the premiums are not paid within a grace period. However, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many states have enacted moratoriums on the cancellation of insurance due to non-payment. The specific provisions of the moratoriums vary from state-to-state.
A future increase in delinquent loans caused by the COVID-19 pandemic or other factors, as well as the possible transfer of servicing resulting from liquidity issues, may increase the

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operational burden on servicers, cause a disruption in the servicing of delinquent loans and reduce servicers’ abilities to undertake mitigation efforts that could help limit our losses.
The information presented in this report and on our website with respect to the mortgage loans we insure is based on information reported to us by third parties, including the servicers and originators of the mortgage loans, and information presented may be subject to lapses or inaccuracies in reporting from such third parties. In many cases, we may not be aware that information reported to us is incorrect until such time as a claim is made against us under the relevant insurance policy. We do not receive monthly policy status information from servicers for single premium policies, and may not be aware that the mortgage loans insured by such policies have been repaid. We periodically attempt to determine if coverage is still in force on such policies by asking the last servicer of record or through the periodic reconciliation of loan information with certain servicers. It may be possible that our reports continue to reflect, as active, policies on mortgage loans that have been repaid.
Changes in interest rates, house prices or mortgage insurance cancellation requirements may change the length of time that our policies remain in force.
The premium from a single premium policy is collected upfront and generally earned over the estimated life of the policy. In contrast, premiums from monthly and annual premium policies are received each month or year, as applicable, and earned each month over the life of the policy. In each year, most of our premiums earned are from insurance that has been written in prior years. As a result, the length of time insurance remains in force, which is generally measured by persistency (the percentage of our insurance remaining in force from one year prior), is a significant determinant of our revenues. A higher than expected persistency rate may decrease the profitability from single premium policies because they will remain in force longer and may increase the incidence of claims than was estimated when the policies were written. A low persistency rate on monthly and annual premium policies will reduce future premiums but may also reduce the incidence of claims, while a high persistency on those policies will increase future premiums but may increase the incidence of claims.
Our persistency rate was 62.6% at December 31, 2021, 60.5% at December 31, 2020 and 75.8% at December 31, 2019. Since 2000, our year-end persistency ranged from a high of 84.7% at December 31, 2009 to a low of 47.1% at December 31, 2003. Our persistency rate is primarily affected by the level of current mortgage interest rates compared to the mortgage coupon rates on our insurance in force, which affects the vulnerability of the insurance in force to refinancing; and the current amount of equity that borrowers have in the homes underlying our insurance in force. The amount of equity affects persistency in the following ways:
Borrowers with significant equity may be able to refinance their loans without requiring mortgage insurance.
The Homeowners Protection Act (“HOPA”) requires servicers to cancel mortgage insurance when a borrower’s LTV ratio meets or is scheduled to meet certain levels, generally based on the original value of the home and subject to various conditions.
The GSEs’ mortgage insurance cancellation guidelines apply more broadly than HOPA and also consider a home’s current value. For example, borrowers may request cancellation of mortgage insurance based on the home’s current value if certain LTV and seasoning requirements are met and the borrowers have an acceptable payment history. For loans seasoned between two and five years, the LTV ratio must be 75% or less, and for loans seasoned more than five years the LTV ratio must be 80% or less. For more information about the GSEs guidelines and business practices, and how they may change, see our risk factor titled “Changes in the business practices of the GSEs, federal legislation that changes their charters or a restructuring of the GSEs could reduce our revenues or increase our losses.
Pandemics, hurricanes and other natural disasters may impact our incurred losses, the amount and timing of paid claims, our inventory of notices of default and our Minimum Required Assets under PMIERs.
Pandemics and other natural disasters, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, wildfires and floods, or other events related to changing climatic conditions, could trigger an economic downturn in the affected areas, or in areas with similar risks, which could result in a decline in our business and an increased claim rate on policies in those areas. Natural disasters, rising sea levels and/or fresh water shortages could lead to a decrease in home prices in the affected areas, or in areas with similar risks, which could result in an increase in claim severity on policies in those areas. In addition, the inability of a borrower to obtain hazard and/or flood insurance, or the increased cost of such insurance, could lead to an increase in delinquencies or a decrease in home prices in the affected areas. If we were to attempt to limit our new insurance written in affected areas, lenders may be unwilling to procure insurance from us anywhere.
Pandemics and other natural disasters could also lead to increased reinsurance rates or reduced availability of reinsurance. This may cause us to retain more risk than we otherwise would retain and could negatively affect our compliance with the financial requirements of the PMIERs.
The PMIERs require us to maintain significantly more "Minimum Required Assets" for delinquent loans than for performing loans; however, the increase in Minimum Required Assets is not as great for certain delinquent loans in areas that the Federal Emergency Management Agency has declared major disaster areas and for certain loans whose borrowers have been affected by COVID-19. See our risk factor titled "We may not continue to meet the GSEs’ private mortgage insurer eligibility requirements and our returns may decrease if we are required to maintain more capital in order to maintain our eligibility."
In January 2021, the FHFA issued a Request for Input (“RFI”) regarding Climate and Natural Disaster Risk Management at the Regulated Entities (i.e., the GSEs and the Federal Home Loan Banks). The FHFA has instructed the GSEs to designate climate change as a priority concern and actively consider its effects in their decision making. It is possible that efforts to manage this risk by the FHFA, GSEs (including through GSE guideline or mortgage insurance policy changes) or others could materially impact the volume and characteristics of our NIW (including its policy terms), home prices in certain areas and defaults by borrowers in certain areas.

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Risk Factors Relating to Our Business Generally
The premiums we charge may not be adequate to compensate us for our liabilities for losses and as a result any inadequacy could materially affect our financial condition and results of operations.
When we set our premiums at policy issuance, we have expectations regarding likely performance of the insured risks over the long term. Generally, we cannot cancel mortgage insurance coverage or adjust renewal premiums during the life of a policy. As a result, higher than anticipated claims generally cannot be offset by premium increases on policies in force or mitigated by our non-renewal or cancellation of insurance coverage. Our premiums are subject to approval by state regulatory agencies, which can delay or limit our ability to increase premiums on future policies. In addition, our customized rate plans may delay our ability to increase premiums on future policies covered by such plans. The premiums we charge, the investment income we earn and the amount of reinsurance we carry may not be adequate to compensate us for the risks and costs associated with the insurance coverage provided to customers. An increase in the number or size of claims, compared to what we anticipated when we set the premiums, could adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition. Our premium rates are also based in part on the amount of capital we are required to hold against the insured risk. If the amount of capital we are required to hold increases from the amount we were required to hold when we set the premiums, our returns may be lower than we assumed. For a discussion of the amount of capital we are required to hold, see our risk factor titled "We may not continue to meet the GSEs’ private mortgage insurer eligibility requirements and our returns may decrease if we are required to maintain more capital in order to maintain our eligibility."
Competition or changes in our relationships with our customers could reduce our revenues, reduce our premium yields and / or increase our losses.
The private mortgage insurance industry is highly competitive and is expected to remain so. We believe we currently compete with other private mortgage insurers based on premium rates, underwriting requirements, financial strength (including based on credit or financial strength ratings), customer relationships, name recognition, reputation, strength of management teams and field organizations, the ancillary products and services provided to lenders and the effective use of technology and innovation in the delivery and servicing of our mortgage insurance products.

Our relationships with our customers, which may affect the amount of our NIW, could be adversely affected by a variety of factors, including if our premium rates are higher than those of our competitors, our underwriting requirements are more restrictive than those of our competitors, or our customers are dissatisfied with our claims-paying practices (including insurance policy rescissions and claim curtailments).

In recent years, the industry has materially reduced its use of standard rate cards, which were fairly consistent among competitors, and correspondingly increased its use of (i) "risk-based pricing systems" that use a spectrum of filed rates to allow for formulaic, risk-based pricing based on multiple attributes that may be quickly adjusted within certain parameters, and (ii) customized rate plans, both of which typically have rates lower than the standard rate card. Our increased use of reinsurance
over the past several years, and the improved credit profile and reduced loss expectations associated with loans insured after 2008, have helped to mitigate the negative effect of declining premium rates on our expected returns. However, refer to our risk factor titled "Reinsurance may not always be available or affordable" for a discussion of the risks associated with the availability of reinsurance, and our risk factors titled “Downturns in the domestic economy or declines in home prices may result in more homeowners defaulting and our losses increasing, with a corresponding decrease in our returns,” and “Pandemics, hurricanes and other natural disasters may impact our incurred losses, the amount and timing of paid claims, our inventory of notices of default and our Minimum Required Assets under PMIERs” for a discussion about risks associated with our NIW.
The widespread use of risk-based pricing systems by the private mortgage insurance industry makes it more difficult to compare our rates to those offered by our competitors. We may not be aware of industry rate changes until we observe that our volume of NIW has changed. In addition, business under customized rate plans is awarded by certain customers for only limited periods of time. As a result, our NIW may fluctuate more than it had in the past. Regarding the concentration of our new business, our top ten customers accounted for approximately 36% in 2021 and 41% in 2020.
We monitor various competitive and economic factors while seeking to balance both profitability and market share considerations in developing our pricing strategies. Premium rates on NIW will change our premium yield (net premiums earned divided by the average insurance in force) over time as older insurance policies run off and new insurance policies with premium rates that are generally lower are written.
Certain of our competitors have access to capital at a lower cost than we do (including, through off-shore intercompany reinsurance vehicles, which have tax advantages that may increase if U.S. corporate income taxes increase). As a result, they may be able to achieve higher after-tax rates of return on their NIW compared to us, which could allow them to leverage reduced premium rates to gain market share, and they may be better positioned to compete outside of traditional mortgage insurance, including by participating in alternative forms of credit enhancement pursued by the GSEs discussed in our risk factor titled "The amount of insurance we write could be adversely affected if lenders and investors select alternatives to private mortgage insurance."
Although the current PMIERs of the GSEs do not require an insurer to maintain minimum financial strength ratings, our financial strength ratings can affect us in the ways set forth below. If we are unable to compete effectively in the current or any future markets as a result of the financial strength ratings assigned to our insurance subsidiaries, our future NIW could be negatively affected.
A downgrade in our financial strength ratings could result in increased scrutiny of our financial condition by the GSEs and/or our customers, potentially resulting in a decrease in the amount of our NIW.
Our ability to participate in the non-GSE residential mortgage-backed securities market (the size of which has been limited since 2008, but may grow in the future), could depend on our ability to maintain and improve our investment grade ratings

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for our insurance subsidiaries. We could be competitively disadvantaged with some market participants because the financial strength ratings of our insurance subsidiaries are lower than those of some competitors. MGIC's financial strength rating from A.M. Best is A- (with a stable outlook), from Moody’s is Baa1 (with a stable outlook) and from Standard & Poor’s is BBB+ (with a stable outlook).
Financial strength ratings may also play a greater role if the GSEs no longer operate in their current capacities, for example, due to legislative or regulatory action. In addition, although the PMIERs do not require minimum financial strength ratings, the GSEs consider financial strength ratings to be important when using forms of credit enhancement other than traditional mortgage insurance, as discussed in our risk factor titled "The amount of insurance we write could be adversely affected if lenders and investors select alternatives to private mortgage insurance." The final GSE capital framework provides more capital credit for transactions with higher rated counterparties, as well as those who are diversified. Although we are currently unaware of a direct impact on MGIC, this could potentially become a competitive disadvantage in the future.
In December 2021, Standard & Poor’s announced a proposed change to their rating methodologies for insurers, including mortgage insurers. It is uncertain what impact the proposed change would have, whether it will be adopted in its current form, whether it will prompt similar moves at other rating agencies, or the extent to which it will impact how external parties evaluate the different rating levels.
We are involved in legal proceedings and are subject to the risk of additional legal proceedings in the future.
Before paying an insurance claim, generally we review the loan and servicing files to determine the appropriateness of the claim amount. When reviewing the files, we may determine that we have the right to rescind coverage or deny a claim on the loan (both referred to as “rescissions”). In addition, our insurance policies generally provide that we can reduce a claim if the servicer did not comply with its obligations under our insurance policy (such reduction referred to as a “curtailment”). In recent years, an immaterial percentage of claims received have been resolved by rescissions. In 2021 and 2020, curtailments reduced our average claim paid by approximately 4.4% and 3.6%, respectively. The COVID-19-related foreclosure moratoriums and forbearance plans have decreased our claims paid activity beginning in the second quarter of 2020. It is difficult to predict the level of curtailments once the foreclosure moratoriums and forbearance plans end. Our loss reserving methodology incorporates our estimates of future rescissions, curtailments, and reversals of rescissions and curtailments. A variance between ultimate actual rescission, curtailment and reversal rates and our estimates, as a result of the outcome of litigation, settlements or other factors, could materially affect our losses.
When the insured disputes our right to rescind coverage or curtail claims, we generally engage in discussions in an attempt to settle the dispute. If we are unable to reach a settlement, the outcome of a dispute ultimately may be determined by legal proceedings. Under ASC 450-20, until a loss associated with settlement discussions or legal proceedings becomes probable and can be reasonably estimated, we consider our claim payment or
rescission resolved for financial reporting purposes and do not accrue an estimated loss. When we determine that a loss is probable and can be reasonably estimated, we record our best estimate of our probable loss, including recording a probable loss of $6.3 million in 2021. In those cases, until settlement negotiations or legal proceedings are concluded (including the receipt of any necessary GSE approvals), it is possible that we will record an additional loss. We are currently involved in discussions and/or proceedings with respect to our claims paying practices. Although it is possible that, if not resolved by negotiation, we will not prevail on all matters, we are unable to make a reasonable estimate or range of estimates of the potential liability. We estimate the maximum exposure where a loss is reasonably possible to be approximately $27 million more than the amount of probable loss we have recorded. This estimate of maximum exposure is based on currently available information; is subject to significant judgment, numerous assumptions and known and unknown uncertainties; will include an amount for matters for which we have recorded a probable loss until such matters are concluded; will include different matters from time to time; and does not include interest or consequential or exemplary damages.
In addition to the matters described above, from time to time, we are involved in other disputes and legal proceedings in the ordinary course of business. In our opinion, based on the facts known at this time, the ultimate resolution of these ordinary course disputes and legal proceedings will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position or results of operations.
If our risk management programs are not effective in identifying, or adequate in controlling or mitigating, the risks we face, or if the models used in our businesses are inaccurate, it could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our enterprise risk management program, described in "Business - Our Products and Services - Risk Management" in Item 1, may not be effective in identifying, or adequate in controlling or mitigating, the risks we face in our business.
We employ proprietary and third party models to project returns, price products (including through our risk-based pricing system), determine the techniques used to underwrite insurance, estimate reserves, generate projections used to estimate future pre-tax income and to evaluate loss recognition testing, evaluate risk, determine internal capital requirements, perform stress testing, and for other uses. These models rely on estimates and projections that are inherently uncertain and may not operate as intended, especially in unprecedented circumstances such as those surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic, or with respect to emerging risks, such as changing climatic conditions. In addition, from time to time we seek to improve certain models, and the conversion process may result in material changes to certain assumptions, which could impact our expectations about future returns and financial results. The models we employ are complex, which increases our risk of error in their design, implementation or use. Also, the associated input data, assumptions and calculations may not be correct or accurate, and the controls we have in place to mitigate that risk may not be effective in all cases. The risks related to our models may increase when we change assumptions and/or methodologies, or when we add or change modeling platforms. We have enhanced, and we intend to continue to enhance, our modeling capabilities. Moreover, we may

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use information we receive through enhancements to refine or otherwise change existing assumptions and/or methodologies.
We rely on our management team and our business could be harmed if we are unable to retain qualified personnel or successfully develop and/or recruit their replacements.
Our success depends, in part, on the skills, working relationships and continued services of our management team and other key personnel. The unexpected departure of key personnel could adversely affect the conduct of our business. In such event, we would be required to obtain other personnel to manage and operate our business. In addition, we will be required to replace the knowledge and expertise of our aging workforce as our workers retire. In either case, there can be no assurance that we would be able to develop or recruit suitable replacements for the departing individuals; that replacements could be hired, if necessary, on terms that are favorable to us; or that we can successfully transition such replacements in a timely manner. We currently have not entered into any employment agreements with our officers or key personnel. Volatility or lack of performance in our stock price may affect our ability to retain our key personnel or attract replacements should key personnel depart. Without a properly skilled and experienced workforce, our costs, including productivity costs and costs to replace employees may increase, and this could negatively impact our earnings.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company transitioned to a virtual workforce model with certain essential activities supported by limited staff in controlled office environments. This transition was made to responsibly provide for the safety of employees and to continue to serve customers across our businesses. As our employees begin to return to the office, they may be exposed to health risks, which may expose us to potential liability. We have established an interim succession plan for each of our key executives, should an executive be unable to perform his or her duties.
The mix of business we write affects our Minimum Required Assets under the PMIERs, our premium yields and the likelihood of losses occurring.
The Minimum Required Assets under the PMIERs are, in part, a function of the direct risk-in-force and the risk profile of the loans we insure, considering LTV ratio, credit score, vintage, Home Affordable Refinance Program ("HARP") status and delinquency status; and whether the loans were insured under lender-paid mortgage insurance policies or other policies that are not subject to automatic termination consistent with the Homeowners Protection Act requirements for borrower-paid mortgage insurance. Therefore, if our direct risk-in-force increases through increases in NIW, or if our mix of business changes to include loans with higher LTV ratios or lower FICO scores, for example, all other things equal, we will be required to hold more Available Assets in order to maintain GSE eligibility.
The minimum capital required by the risk-based capital framework contained in the exposure draft released by the NAIC in December 2019 would be, in part, a function of certain loan and economic factors, including property location, LTV ratio and credit score, general underwriting quality in the market at the time of loan origination, the age of the loan, and the premium rate we charge. Depending on the provisions of the capital requirements when they are released in final form and become effective, our
mix of business may affect the minimum capital we are required to hold under the new framework.
The percentage of our NIW from all single-premium policies was 7.4% in 2021 and 8.9% in 2020 and has ranged from approximately 5.7% in 2021 to 19% in 2017. Depending on the actual life of a single premium policy and its premium rate relative to that of a monthly premium policy, a single premium policy may generate more or less premium than a monthly premium policy over its life.
As discussed in our risk factor titled "Reinsurance may not always be available or affordable," we have in place various QSR transactions. Although the transactions reduce our premiums, they have a lesser impact on our overall results, as losses ceded under the transactions reduce our losses incurred and the ceding commissions we receive reduce our underwriting expenses. The effect of the QSR transactions on the various components of pre-tax income will vary from period to period, depending on the level of ceded losses incurred. We also have in place various excess-of-loss ("XOL") reinsurance transactions, under which we cede premiums. Under the XOL reinsurance transactions, for the respective reinsurance coverage periods, we retain the first layer of aggregate losses, and special purpose insurers provide second layer coverage up to the outstanding reinsurance coverage amount.
In addition to the effect of reinsurance on our premiums, we expect a decline in our premium yield because an increasing percentage of our insurance in force is from recent book years whose premium rates had been trending lower.
Our ability to rescind insurance coverage became more limited for new insurance written beginning in mid-2012, and it became further limited for new insurance written under our revised master policy that became effective March 1, 2020. These limitations may result in higher losses paid than would be the case under our previous master policies. In addition, our rescission rights temporarily have become more limited due to accommodations we have made in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic. We have waived our rescission rights in certain circumstances where the failure to make payments was associated with a COVID-19 pandemic-related forbearance.
From time to time, in response to market conditions, we change the types of loans that we insure. We also may change our underwriting guidelines, in part by agreeing with certain approval recommendations from a GSE automated underwriting system. In the third quarter of 2021, Fannie Mae indicated that it was easing its credit assessments and guidelines to help increase homeownership opportunities for borrowers. We have aligned with these changes, which will result in our insuring some loans with FICO scores lower than 620. We also make exceptions to our underwriting requirements on a loan-by-loan basis and for certain customer programs. Our underwriting requirements are available on our website at http://www.mgic.com/underwriting/index.html.
Even when home prices are stable or rising, mortgages with certain characteristics have higher probabilities of claims. As of December 31, 2021, mortgages with these characteristics in our primary risk in force included mortgages with LTV ratios greater than 95% (14.7%), mortgages with borrowers having FICO scores below 680 (7.9%), including those with borrowers having FICO scores of 620-679 (6.8%), mortgages with limited underwriting,

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including limited borrower documentation (1.0%), and mortgages with borrowers having DTI ratios greater than 45% (or where no ratio is available) (13.6%), each attribute as determined at the time of loan origination. Loans with more than one of these attributes accounted for 2% of our primary risk in force as of December 31, 2021, and less than one percent of our NIW in each of 2021 and 2020. When home prices increase and/or the percentage of our NIW from purchase transactions increases, our NIW on mortgages with higher LTV ratios and higher DTI ratios may increase.
From time to time, we change the processes we use to underwrite loans. For example: we rely on information provided to us by lenders that was obtained from certain of the GSEs’ automated appraisal and income verification tools, which may produce results that differ from the results that would have been determined using different methods; we accept GSE appraisal waivers for certain refinance loans, the numbers of which have increased significantly beginning in 2020 and remain elevated; and we accept GSE appraisal flexibilities that allow property valuations in certain transactions to be based on appraisals that do not involve an onsite or interior inspection of the property. Our acceptance of automated GSE appraisal and income verification tools, GSE appraisal waivers and GSE appraisal flexibilities may affect our pricing and risk assessment. We also continue to further automate our underwriting processes and it is possible that our automated processes result in our insuring loans that we would not otherwise have insured under our prior processes.
Approximately 72.2% of our 2021 NIW and 70.2% of our 2020 NIW (by risk written) was originated under delegated underwriting programs pursuant to which the loan originators had authority on our behalf to underwrite the loans for our mortgage insurance. For loans originated through a delegated underwriting program, we depend on the originators' compliance with our guidelines and rely on the originators' representations that the loans being insured satisfy the underwriting guidelines, eligibility criteria and other requirements. While we have established systems and processes to monitor whether certain aspects of our underwriting guidelines were being followed by the originators, such systems may not ensure that the guidelines were being strictly followed at the time the loans were originated.
The widespread use of risk-based pricing systems by the private mortgage insurance industry (discussed in our risk factor titled "Competition or changes in our relationships with our customers could reduce our revenues, reduce our premium yields and / or increase our losses") makes it more difficult to compare our premium rates to those offered by our competitors. We may not be aware of industry rate changes until we observe that our mix of new insurance written has changed and our mix may fluctuate more as a result.
If state or federal regulations or statutes are changed in ways that ease mortgage lending standards and/or requirements, or if lenders seek ways to replace business in times of lower mortgage originations, it is possible that more mortgage loans could be originated with higher risk characteristics than are currently being originated, such as loans with lower FICO scores and higher DTI ratios. The focus of the new FHFA leadership on increasing homeownership opportunities for borrowers is likely to have this effect. Lenders could pressure mortgage insurers to insure such loans, which are expected to experience higher claim rates. Although we attempt to incorporate these higher expected claim
rates into our underwriting and pricing models, there can be no assurance that the premiums earned and the associated investment income will be adequate to compensate for actual losses paid even under our current underwriting requirements.
Our holding company debt obligations materially exceed our holding company cash and investments.
At December 31, 2021, we had approximately $663 million in cash and investments at our holding company and our holding company’s debt obligations were $1.0 billion in aggregate principal amount, consisting of $242 million of 5.75% Senior Notes due in 2023 ("5.75% Notes"), $650 million of 5.25% Senior Notes due 2028 (the 5.25% Notes), and $110 million of 9% Convertible Junior Subordinated Debentures due in 2063 ("9% Debentures"). Annual debt service on the 5.75% Notes, 5.25% Notes and 9% Debentures outstanding as of December 31, 2021, is approximately $58 million.
The 5.75% Senior Notes, 5.25% Senior Notes and 9% Debentures are obligations of our holding company, MGIC Investment Corporation, and not of its subsidiaries. The payment of dividends from our insurance subsidiaries (primarily MGIC) which, other than investment income and raising capital in the public markets, is the principal source of our holding company cash inflow. Although MGIC holds assets in excess of its minimum statutory capital requirements and its PMIERs financial requirements, the ability of MGIC to pay dividends is restricted by insurance regulation. In general, dividends in excess of prescribed limits are deemed “extraordinary” and may not be paid if disapproved by the OCI. The level of ordinary dividends that may be paid without OCI approval is determined on an annual basis. A dividend is extraordinary when the proposed dividend amount, plus dividends paid in the twelve months preceding the dividend payment date exceed the ordinary dividend level. At December 31, 2021 MGIC could pay $122 million of ordinary dividends without OCI approval, before taking into consideration dividends paid in the preceding twelve months. In 2021, MGIC paid $400 million in dividends of cash and investments to the holding company. Future dividend payments from MGIC to the holding company will be determined in consultation with the board of directors, and after considering any updated estimates about the economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business.
In the fourth quarter of 2021, we repurchased $99 million in aggregate principal amount of our 9% Debentures, using $136 million of holding company resources, eliminating 7.5 million potentially dilutive common shares, reducing annual interest expense by $8.9 million and resulting in a $37 million loss on debt extinguishment. We may continue to repurchase our debt obligations on the open market (including through 10b5-1 plans) or through privately negotiated transactions. In addition, we may redeem our 9% Debentures as discussed in our risk factor titled "Your ownership in our company may be diluted by additional capital that we raise or if the holders of our outstanding convertible debt convert that debt into shares of our common stock."
Repurchases of our common stock may be made from time to time on the open market (including through 10b5-1 plans) or through privately negotiated transactions. In 2020 we repurchased approximately 9.6 million shares of our common stock, using approximately $120 million of holding company resources. After suspending stock repurchases due to the uncertainty caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, in the second half

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of 2021, we repurchased approximately 19.0 million shares, using approximately $291 million of holding company resources. As of December 31, 2021, we had $500 million of authorization remaining to repurchase our common stock through the end of 2023 under a share repurchase program approved by our Board of Directors in October 2021. If any capital contributions to our subsidiaries are required, such contributions would decrease our holding company cash and investments. As described in our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on February 11, 2016, MGIC borrowed $155 million from the Federal Home Loan Bank of Chicago. This is an obligation of MGIC and not of our holding company.
Your ownership in our company may be diluted by additional capital that we raise or if the holders of our outstanding convertible debt convert that debt into shares of our common stock.
As noted above under our risk factor titled “We may not continue to meet the GSEs’ private mortgage insurer eligibility requirements and our returns may decrease if we are required to maintain more capital in order to maintain our eligibility,” although we are currently in compliance with the requirements of the PMIERs, there can be no assurance that we would not seek to issue additional debt capital or to raise additional equity or equity-linked capital to manage our capital position under the PMIERs or for other purposes. Any future issuance of equity securities may dilute your ownership interest in our company. In addition, the market price of our common stock could decline as a result of sales of a large number of shares or similar securities in the market or the perception that such sales could occur.
At December 31, 2021, we had outstanding $110 million principal amount of 9% Debentures. The principal amount of the 9% Debentures is currently convertible, at the holder’s option, at a conversion rate, which is subject to adjustment, of 76.5496 common shares per $1,000 principal amount of debentures. This represents a conversion price of approximately $13.06 per share. The payment of dividends by our holding company results in an adjustment to the conversion rate and price, with such adjustment generally deferred until the end of the year.
We may redeem the 9% Debentures in whole or in part from time to time, at our option, at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 9% Debentures being redeemed, plus any accrued and unpaid interest, if the closing sale price of our common stock exceeds $16.98 (adjusted pro rata for changes in the conversion price) for at least 20 of the 30 trading days preceding notice of the redemption. We have the right, and may elect, to defer interest payable under the 9% Debentures in the future. If a holder elects to convert its 9% Debentures, the interest that has been deferred on the 9% Debentures being converted is also convertible into shares of our common stock. The conversion rate for such deferred interest is based on the average price that our shares traded at during a 5-day period immediately prior to the election to convert the associated debentures. We may elect to pay cash for some or all of the shares issuable upon a conversion of the debentures. For more information about the 9% Debentures, including additional requirements resulting from the deferral of interest, see Note 7 – “Debt” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8.
For a discussion of the dilutive effects of our convertible securities on our earnings per share, see Note 4 – “Earnings Per
Share” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8. As noted above, we have repurchased shares of our common stock in 2021 and intend to do so again in the future. In addition, we repurchased a portion of our debt obligations in 2021 and may do so again in the future.
The price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly, which may make it difficult for holders to resell common stock when they want or at a price they find attractive.
The market price for our common stock may fluctuate significantly. In addition to the risk factors described herein, the following factors may have an adverse impact on the market price for our common stock: changes in general conditions in the economy, the mortgage insurance industry or the financial markets; announcements by us or our competitors of acquisitions or strategic initiatives; our actual or anticipated quarterly and annual operating results; changes in expectations of future financial performance (including incurred losses on our insurance in force); changes in estimates of securities analysts or rating agencies; actual or anticipated changes in our share repurchase program or dividends; changes in operating performance or market valuation of companies in the mortgage insurance industry; the addition or departure of key personnel; changes in tax law; and adverse press or news announcements affecting us or the industry. In addition, ownership by certain types of investors may affect the market price and trading volume of our common stock. For example, ownership in our common stock by investors such as index funds and exchange-traded funds can affect the stock’s price when those investors must purchase or sell our common stock because the investors have experienced significant cash inflows or outflows, the index to which our common stock belongs has been rebalanced, or our common stock is added to and/or removed from an index (due to changes in our market capitalization, for example).
We could be adversely affected if personal information on consumers that we maintain is improperly disclosed, our information technology systems are damaged or their operations are interrupted, or our automated processes do not operate as expected.
As part of our business, we maintain large amounts of personal information of consumers, including on our servers and those of cloud computing services. Federal and state laws designed to promote the protection of such information require businesses that collect or maintain consumer information to adopt information security programs, and to notify individuals, and in some jurisdictions, regulatory authorities, of security breaches involving personally identifiable information.
We are increasingly reliant on the efficient and uninterrupted operation of complex information technology systems. All information technology systems are potentially vulnerable to damage or interruption from a variety of sources, including by third-party cyber attacks, including those involving ransomware. The Company discovers vulnerabilities and experiences malicious attacks and other attempts to gain unauthorized access to its systems on a regular basis. Globally, attacks are expected to continue accelerating in both frequency and sophistication with increasing use by actors of tools and techniques that will hinder the Company’s ability to identify, investigate and recover from incidents. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company transitioned to a primarily virtual workforce model and will likely

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continue to operate under a hybrid model in the future. Virtual and hybrid workforce models may be more vulnerable to security breaches.
While we have information security policies and systems in place to secure our information technology systems and to prevent unauthorized access to or disclosure of sensitive information, there can be no assurance with respect to our systems and those of our third-party vendors that unauthorized access to the systems or disclosure of the sensitive information, either through the actions of third parties or employees, will not occur. Due to our reliance on information technology systems, including ours and those of our customers and third-party service providers, and to the sensitivity of the information that we maintain, unauthorized access to the systems or disclosure of the information could adversely affect our reputation, severely disrupt our operations, result in a loss of business and expose us to material claims for damages and may require that we provide free credit monitoring services to individuals affected by a security breach.
Should we experience an unauthorized disclosure of information or a cyber attack, including those involving ransomware, some of the costs we incur may not be recoverable through insurance, or legal or other processes, and this may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
We are in the process of upgrading certain information systems, and transforming and automating certain business processes, and we continue to enhance our risk-based pricing system and our system for evaluating risk. Certain information systems have been in place for a number of years and it has become increasingly difficult to support their operation. The implementation of technological and business process improvements, as well as their integration with customer and third-party systems when applicable, is complex, expensive and time consuming. If we fail to timely and successfully implement and integrate the new technology systems, if the third party providers to which we are becoming increasingly reliant do not perform as expected, if our legacy systems fail to operate as required, or if the upgraded systems and/or transformed and automated business processes do not operate as expected, it could have a material adverse impact on our business, business prospects and results of operations.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to manage risks in our investment portfolio.
Our investment portfolio is an important source of revenue and is our primary source of claims paying resources. Although our investment portfolio consists mostly of highly-rated fixed income investments, our investment portfolio is affected by general economic conditions and tax policy, which may adversely affect the markets for credit and interest-rate-sensitive securities, including the extent and timing of investor participation in these markets, the level and volatility of interest rates and credit spreads and, consequently, the value of our fixed income securities. The value of our investment portfolio may also be adversely affected by ratings downgrades, increased bankruptcies and credit spreads widening in distressed industries. In addition, the collectability and valuation of our municipal bond portfolio may be adversely affected if state and local municipalities incur increased costs to respond to COVID-19 and receive fewer tax revenues due to adverse economic
conditions. Our investment portfolio also includes commercial mortgage-backed securities, collateralized loan obligations, and asset-backed securities, which could be adversely affected by declines in real estate valuations, increases in unemployment and/or financial market disruption, including a heightened collection risk on the underlying loans. As a result of these matters, we may not achieve our investment objectives and a reduction in the market value of our investments could have an adverse effect on our liquidity, financial condition and results of operations.
For the significant portion of our investment portfolio that is held by MGIC, to receive full capital credit under insurance regulatory requirements and under the PMIERs, we generally are limited to investing in investment grade fixed income securities whose yields reflect their lower credit risk profile. Our investment income depends upon the size of the portfolio and its reinvestment at prevailing interest rates. A prolonged period of low investment yields would have an adverse impact on our investment income as would a decrease in the size of the portfolio.
We structure our investment portfolio to satisfy our expected liabilities, including claim payments in our mortgage insurance business. If we underestimate our liabilities or improperly structure our investments to meet these liabilities, we could have unexpected losses resulting from the forced liquidation of fixed income investments before their maturity, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
The Company may be adversely impacted by the transition from LIBOR as a reference rate.
The United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that after 2021 it would no longer publish one-week and two-month tenor USD LIBOR and that after June 30, 2023, it would no longer publish all other USD LIBOR tenors. Efforts are underway to identify and transition to a set of alternative reference rates. The set of alternative rates includes the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), which the Federal Reserve Bank of New York began publishing in 2018. Because SOFR is calculated based on different criteria than LIBOR, SOFR and LIBOR may diverge.
While it is not currently possible to determine precisely whether, or to what extent, the replacement of LIBOR would affect us, the implementation of alternative benchmark rates to LIBOR may have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition. We have three primary types of transactions that involve financial instruments referencing LIBOR. First, as of December 31, 2021, approximately 6% of the fair value of our investment portfolio consisted of securities referencing LIBOR, none of which reference one-week and two-month tenors. Second, as of December 31, 2021, approximately $0.5 billion of our risk in force was on adjustable rate mortgages whose interest is referenced to one-month USD LIBOR. A change in reference rate associated with these loans may affect their principal balance, which may affect our risk-in-force and the amount of Minimum Required Assets we are required to maintain under PMIERs. A change in reference rate may also affect the amount of principal and/or accrued interest we are required to pay in the event of a claim payment. Third, the premiums under most of our 2018-2021 excess-of-loss reinsurance agreements are determined, in part, by the difference between interest payable on the reinsurers’ notes which reference one-month USD LIBOR and earnings from a pool

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of securities receiving interest that may reference LIBOR (in 2021, our total premiums on such transactions were approximately $39.5 million).


Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

Item 2. Properties
At December 31, 2021, we had no office space leases in the United States that require monthly rental payments.

We own our headquarters facility and an additional office/warehouse facility, both located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, which contain an aggregate of approximately 310,000 square feet of space.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Certain legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of business may be filed or pending against us from time to time. For information about such legal proceedings, see Note 17 – "Litigation and Contingencies" to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not Applicable.

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Information About Our Executive Officers
Certain information with respect to our executive officers as of February 23, 2022 is set forth below:
Executive officers of the registrant
Name and AgeTitle
Timothy J. Mattke, 46Chief Executive Officer and Director of MGIC Investment Corporation and MGIC
Salvatore A. Miosi, 55President and Chief Operating Officer of MGIC Investment Corporation and MGIC
Nathan H. Colson, 38Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of MGIC Investment Corporation and MGIC
James J. Hughes, 59Executive Vice President – Sales and Business Development of MGIC
Paula C. Maggio, 53Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of MGIC Investment Corporation and MGIC
Steven M. Thompson, 59
Executive Vice President and Chief Risk Officer of MGIC
Robert J. Candelmo, 58
Senior Vice President and Chief Information Officer of MGIC


Mr. Mattke has served as our Chief Executive Officer since 2019. Before then, he had been the Company’s Chief Financial Officer from 2014 to 2019, and its Controller from 2009 to 2014. He joined the Company in 2006. Prior to his becoming Controller, he was Assistant Controller of MGIC beginning in 2007 and prior to that was a manager in MGIC’s accounting department. Before joining MGIC, Mr. Mattke was with PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, the Company’s independent registered accounting firm.

Mr. Miosi has served as our President and Chief Operating Officer since 2019. Before then, he had been Executive Vice President – Business Strategy and Operations since 2017. He served as Senior Vice President – Business Strategy and Operations of MGIC from 2015 to 2017, and Vice President – Marketing from 2004 to 2015. Mr. Miosi joined the company in 1988 and has also held a variety of leadership positions in the operations, technology and marketing divisions.

Mr. Colson has served as our Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since 2019. Before then, he had been MGIC's Vice President – Finance during 2019 and its Assistant Treasurer from 2016 to 2019. He joined MGIC in 2014 and prior to becoming Assistant Treasurer, he held positions in its Risk Management Department. Before joining MGIC, Mr. Colson was with PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, the Company’s independent registered accounting firm.



Mr. Hughes has served as Executive Vice President – Sales and Business Development of MGIC since 2017. He served as Senior Vice President – Sales and Business Development of MGIC from 2015 to 2017, and Vice President, Managing Director in the sales area from 2001 to 2015. He joined MGIC in 1987 and prior to becoming Vice President, Managing Director, he had been an Account Manager and a Sales Manager.

Ms. Maggio joined the Company in 2018 and has served as Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary since then. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Maggio had been Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of Retail Properties of America, Inc. from 2016 to 2018, Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of Strategic Hotels & Resorts, Inc. (SHR) from 2012 to 2015, and in various other leadership roles with SHR since joining that firm in 2000. Prior to joining SHR, Ms. Maggio had been in private legal practice from 1994-2000.

Mr. Thompson has served as MGIC's Executive Vice President and Chief Risk Officer since 2019. Before then, he had been Interim Chief Risk Officer during 2019, and Vice President Credit Policy and Pricing from 2016 to 2019. He joined MGIC in 1998 and prior to being named Vice President Credit Policy and Pricing, he held several management positions in its Risk Management Department, including Vice President – Risk Management from 2000 to 2016.

Mr. Candelmo has served as MGIC's Senior Vice President and Chief Information Officer since 2019. He joined MGIC in 2014 as its Vice President – Chief Technology Officer. Prior to joining MGIC, Mr. Candelmo had been Senior Vice President of Enterprise Information Services with SunTrust Bank since 2008. Prior to joining SunTrust, Mr. Candelmo had held various other leadership roles within the information technology discipline.


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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

(a)Our Common Stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “MTG.”

As of February 18, 2022, the number of shareholders of record was 259. In addition, we estimate there are approximately 56,100 beneficial owners of shares held by brokers and fiduciaries.

Information regarding equity compensation plans is contained in Item 12.

(b)Not applicable.

(c)Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table provides information about purchases of MGIC Investment Corporation common stock by us during the three months ended December 31, 2021.
Share repurchases
Period BeginningPeriod EndingTotal number of shares purchasedAverage price paid per shareTotal number of shares purchased as part of publicly announced plans or programs
Approximate dollar value of shares that may yet be purchased under the program (1)
October 1, 2021October 31, 20213,752,394 $15.99 3,752,394 $580,818,038 
November 1, 2021November 30, 20215,247,039 $15.40 5,247,039 $500,000,000 
December 1, 2021December 31, 2021— $— — $500,000,000 
8,999,433 $15.65 8,999,433 $500,000,000 

(1)In October 2021, we received authorization from our Board of Directors to repurchase an additional $500 million of our common stock through the end of 2023. Repurchases may be made from time to time on the open market (including through 10b5-1 plans) or through privately negotiated transactions. The repurchase program may be suspended for periods or discontinued at any time.


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Item 6. Reserved.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

INTRODUCTION
As used below, “we” and “our” refer to MGIC Investment Corporation’s consolidated operations or to MGIC Investment Corporation, as a separate entity, as the context requires. References to "we" and "our" in the context of debt obligations refer to MGIC Investment Corporation. See the "Glossary of terms and acronyms" for definitions and descriptions of terms used throughout this annual report. The Risk Factors contained in Item 1A discuss trends and uncertainties affecting us and are an integral part of the MD&A.

The following is a discussion and analysis of the financial conditions and results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, including comparisons between 2021 and 2020. Comparisons between 2020 and 2019 have been omitted from this Form 10-K, but can be found in "Item 7 - Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 filed with the SEC.

Forward Looking and Other Statements
As discussed under “Forward Looking Statements and Risk Factors” in Item 1A of Part 1 of this Report, actual results may differ materially from the results contemplated by forward looking statements. We are not undertaking any obligation to update any forward looking statements or other statements we may make in the following discussion or elsewhere in this document even though these statements may be affected by events or circumstances occurring after the forward looking statements or other statements were made. Therefore, no reader of this document should rely on these statements being current as of any time other than the time at which this document was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

OVERVIEW
This Overview of the MD&A highlights selected information and may not contain all of the information that is important to readers of this Annual Report. Hence, this Overview is qualified by the information that appears elsewhere in this Annual Report, including the other portions of the MD&A.

Through our subsidiary, MGIC, we are a leading provider of PMI in the United States, as measured by $274.4 billion of primary IIF on a consolidated basis at December 31, 2021.
Summary of financial results of MGIC Investment Corporation
Year Ended December 31,
(in millions, except per share data)20212020Change
Selected statement of operations data
Net premiums earned$1,014.4 $1,021.9 (1)%
Investment income, net of expenses156.4 154.4 %
Losses incurred, net64.6 364.8 (82)%
Other operating and underwriting expenses, net198.4 176.4 12 %
Loss on debt extinguishment36.9 26.7 38 %
Income before tax801.8 559.3 43 %
Provision for income taxes166.8 113.2 47 %
Net income635.0 446.1 42 %
Diluted income per share$1.85 $1.29 43 %
Non-GAAP Financial Measures (1)
Adjusted pre-tax operating income$831.7 $572.8 45 %
Adjusted net operating income658.6 456.8 44 %
Adjusted net operating income per diluted share$1.91 $1.32 45 %

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SUMMARY OF 2021 FINANCIAL RESULTS
Net income of $635.0 million for 2021 increased by $188.9 million when compared to the prior year, and diluted income per share of $1.85 increased by 43% when compared to the prior year. These increases primarily reflect a decrease in losses incurred, partially offset by increases in the provision for income taxes, other underwriting and operating expenses, net, and loss on debt extinguishment.

Diluted income per share increased due to a an increase in net income and a decrease in the number of diluted weighted average shares outstanding.

Adjusted net operating income for 2021 was $658.6 million (2020: $456.8 million) and adjusted net operating income per diluted share was $1.91 (2020: $1.32). Adjusted net operating income for 2021 and 2020 included adjustments for a loss on debt extinguishment and net realized investment gains.

Losses incurred, net were $64.6 million, compared to $364.8 million the prior year. The decrease reflects fewer delinquency notices in 2021 compared with 2020 which was impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and the resultant macroeconomic environment.

The decrease in losses incurred in 2021 was also due to favorable loss reserve development of $60.0 million primarily due to a decrease in the estimated claim rate on pre-COVID and peak COVID delinquencies (those that occurred in the second and third quarters of 2020). The favorable loss reserve development was offset by the recognition of a probable loss of $6.3 million related to litigation of our claims paying practice. In 2020 we experienced adverse loss reserve development of $19.6 million primarily due to an increase in the estimate of claim severity.

The increase in our provision for income taxes to $166.8 million in 2021 compared to $113.2 million in 2020 was primarily due to an increase in income before tax. Our effective tax rate for 2021 was 20.8% compared to 20.2% for 2020.

Other operating and underwriting expenses, net increased to $198.4 million in 2021 from $176.4 million in 2020 primarily due to increases in professional and consulting services, offset by an increase in ceding commissions.

We recorded a loss on debt extinguishment of $36.9 million in 2021 associated with the repurchase of a portion of our 9% Debentures and $26.7 million in 2020 associated with the repurchases of a portion of each of our 5.75% Notes and our 9% Debentures.

BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT
Economic conditions
Low interest rates, increasing household formations and appreciating home values supported favorable housing trends in 2021. These factors contributed to an increase in home purchase activity in 2021, after a strong 2020. Refinance activity was also robust during 2021, but decreased throughout the year. The continued favorable housing trends resulted in an increase in our NIW, from $120.2 billion in 2021 when compared to $112.1 billion in 2020.

While uncertain, the COVID-19 pandemic may adversely impact our future financial results, business, liquidity and/or financial
condition. The magnitude of the impact will be influenced by various factors, including the length and severity of the pandemic in the United States, efforts to reduce the transmission of COVID-19, the level of unemployment, and the impact of government initiatives and actions taken by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac (the "GSEs") (including mortgage forbearance and modification programs) to mitigate the economic harm caused by COVID-19.

The level of unemployment, interest rates, and home prices may change in the future. For the possible effects of such changes, see our risk factors titled "If the volume of low down payment home mortgage originations declines, the amount of insurance that we write could decline,” “Downturns in the domestic economy or declines in home prices may result in more homeowners defaulting and our losses increasing, with a corresponding decrease in our returns,” “Changes in interest rates, house prices or mortgage insurance cancellation requirements may change the length of time that our policies remain in force," and "The COVID-19 pandemic may materially impact our financial results, business, liquidity, and/or financial condition."

Mortgage insurance market
The past several years of favorable housing fundamentals and in our view, favorable risk characteristics of our recently insured loans contributed to a growing insurance in force.

The percentage of our NIW with DTI ratios over 45% and LTV's over 95% increased slightly in 2021 compared with 2020. The increase was primarily driven by an increase in home price appreciation and an increase in purchase activity with a corresponding decrease in refinance activity.

Refer to "Mortgage Insurance Portfolio" for additional discussion of changes in our NIW mix during 2020.

Competition
PMI. The private mortgage insurance industry is highly competitive and is expected to remain so. We believe that we currently compete with other private mortgage insurers based on premium rates, underwriting requirements, financial strength (including based on credit or financial strength ratings), customer relationships, name recognition, reputation, strength of management teams and field organizations, the ancillary products and services provided to lenders and the effective use of technology and innovation in the delivery and servicing of our mortgage insurance products.

Pricing practices
In recent years, the industry has materially reduced its use of standard rate cards, which were fairly consistent among competitors, and correspondingly increased its use of (i) "risk-based pricing systems" that use a spectrum of filed rates to allow for formulaic, risk-based pricing based on multiple attributes that may be quickly adjusted within certain parameters, and (ii) customized rate plans, both of which typically have rates lower than the standard rate card. Our increased use of reinsurance over the past several years, and the improved credit profile and reduced loss expectations associated with loans insured after 2008, have helped to mitigate the negative effect of declining premium rates on our expected returns. We expect our direct premium yield to continue to decline as older policies with higher premium rates run off, and are replaced with new insurance policies, which generally have lower premium rates.

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For information about competition in the private mortgage insurance industry, see our risk factor titled “Competition or changes in our relationships with our customers could reduce our revenues, reduce our premium yields and/or increase our losses" in Item 1A.

GSE Risk Share Transactions
In 2018, the GSEs initiated secondary mortgage market programs with loan level mortgage default coverage provided by various (re)insurers that are not mortgage insurers governed by PMIERs, and that are not selected by the lenders. Due to differences in policy terms, these programs may offer premium rates that are below prevalent single premium LPMI rates. While we view these programs as competing with traditional private mortgage insurance, we participate in these programs from time to time.
The GSEs (and other investors) have also used other forms of credit enhancement that did not involve traditional private mortgage insurance, such as engaging in credit-linked note transactions executed in the capital markets, or using other forms of debt issuances or securitizations that transfer credit risk directly to other investors, including competitors and an affiliate of MGIC; using other risk mitigation techniques in conjunction with reduced levels of private mortgage insurance coverage; or accepting credit risk without credit enhancement.

Government programs. PMI also competes against government mortgage insurance programs such as the FHA, VA, and USDA, primarily for lower FICO score business. The combined market share of primary mortgage insurance written by government programs continues to exceed that written by PMI in 2020 and 2021. The strong refinance markets in 2020 and 2021, and PMI premium rate reductions, have contributed to a PMI market share consistent with 2018 and 2019, which were at its highest levels since the financial crisis.

Refer to